This section of your training plan identifies methods for identifying training needs based on process monitoring results, experiences of task performers, and program gap analysis. The purpose of the analysis process is to determine the degree to which there is alignment between or among goals and objectives, performance measures, rewards and incentives, job and work or process designs, available systems, tools, equipment, and expectations and capacity. You should also include an assessment of risks and benefits of proposed solutions based on the analysis outcome.
A. Identifying Training Needs
The analysis of training needs should answer one overall important question: What is the priority of the business need that would be accomplished by a training intervention? Unfortunately, the answer to that question is often pre-determined prior to the analysis itself, but it is still relevant to asking, "What kind of training would be required and how should it be administered or implemented." The instructional designer's knowledge about what kind of training works best with specific kinds of audiences IS relevant and needs to be uppermost in the training needs analyst's mind as each aspect of the analyses is performed.
There are several key contributors to process execution that should be reviewed before making the decision that unsatisfactory process outcomes are due to the lack of, or are a consequence of inadequate training. These include:
Â· Identification of the primary problem to be solved by training intervention
Â· Criticality of the training on a target process in the organization's mission
Â· Analyzing the severity of the process deviation(s) that may be attributed to knowledge or skill gaps
Â· Frequency of deviation occurrence that indicate that work activity is incorrectly executed
Â· Timing of the deviation (occurred at the same point in the process or on a certain day that the process is executed) that indicates the deviation may be dependent on recurring conditions or limitations
Â· Identification of employees or other workers who were involved in the process execution at the time the deviation occurred to determine if there is a common knowledge or skill deficiency
Â· Measurement of previous training intervention outcomes, and assessment of subsequent performance improvement to determine if the training method, approach or level of content may affect the acceptance or implementation of training
To monitor and measure the significance of process execution deviations, details of the process must first have been baselined and documented for all activities, including participants' roles and level of effort, process inputs and outputs, process entry and exit points, and materials, tools, and supplies that are consumed or used in the process. Information that may reflect on the quality and effectiveness of process or task execution can often be extracted from manifests, bills of lading, debriefs, lessons learned, and records or reports written when there is lost productivity, loss of product, out-of-specifications, accidents, deaths, or illness result from the process deviations.
Training needs are often a function of perception. If a training topic does not seem to have relevance or consequence, training acceptance will be very low. In such a situation, the need for any type of training intervention must be created first by identifying training value. Secondly, the need for training must be created by convincing the right level of management that there is an everyday need for everyone working in designated tasks to receive specific KSA training.
B. Re-use of Existing Training Programs
When possible, available training programs should be reused to the maximum extent possible. Use of SCORM compliant materials facilitates that re-use. Those programs that are likely candidates must be reviewed for consistency with course objectives, compatibility with officially-approved content, applicability, and capability to be implemented adequately and effectively.
C. Identification of Training Gaps
An important part of the training needs analysis is to identify what content is not being covered. Training requirements provide the baseline for the comparison with content selected for training coverage. All of the training components must be scrutinized, including background information, problem scenarios, exercises, quizzes, cognitive tests, and performance-oriented skill demonstration. Input for the content must be based primarily on requirements; information from lessons learned, debriefs, and actual operations experiences and needs should provide the justification for deriving and modifying requirements.
D. Identification of New Training Programs Videos
Once training gaps have been identified, existing programs that may be available should be reviewed for applicability for use in new or existing programs. If a portion of a training program could be strengthened, enhanced, or endorsed by use of a video depicting an action-oriented skill, a search for a suitable program should be initiated. Selection of a new training component should be based on applicability, capability to meet the training requirement, and value versus cost to incorporate the new training program component.
E. Adding Value to the Training Process
It is important that the training specialist convey a documented systematic training process to training decision makers. The purpose is to help them understand the implications of choices for who gets trained and how, for setting appropriate measures, for identifying barriers and trade-offs, and for taking control of the training process.
These are some of the criteria for "Adding Value" from the International Society for Performance Improvement's Self-Assessment.
- Comparing the worth of proposed or requested solution to its cost
- Identifying any risk associated with success or failure
- Identifying the anticipated gain of success
- Comparing the cost, risk, and odds of success of different solutions or alternative approaches Recommending solutions that would add value, are feasible, and more likely to accomplish the goals or aims of the project to optimize gain
- Describing the value added and how that value would be measured
- Pointing out and making public the risks, the trade offs, and the assumptions on which decisions or choices are based.
- Obtaining a contract, memo of understanding, or project description that described the expected value added and the costs, a schedule of deliverables and expenses and time and resource costs. push back and challenge assumptions
- Contribute insights and call out implications throughout the work
- Explain the benefits at looking at value