The back of humans is considered to be one of the largest parts of the body. It is known to be found on the posterior area of the body, just the opposite of the chest and abdominal area. It starts from the back of the neck and shoulders and ends at the part just above the buttocks. You could be able to measure the length of the back by looking onto the spine or the backbone. The width of the back is determined by the means of measuring the ribcage and the shoulder area. Being a large part of the body, the human back is known to be an essential support for posture and movement. It facilitates proper body positioning together with the performance of different body movements.
The Skeletal Structure Of The Back
As a huge structure, the human back is known to be comprised of a lot of bones. The main bone structure that can be found on the human back is the vertebral column or the spine. The spine is very important as it keeps the body in proper posture and alignment. It also houses important structures like the nerve. The spine or the vertebral column is considered to be the pathway for the nerves to be transmitted to different parts of the body. Through this, the different parts of the body receive the impulses sent by the brain for them to be able to respond at the right time. Though the spine can be observed to have some curvature, it is very important in giving shape to the back. The ribcage is also another bone structure that can be found on the back. It extends from the top area of the spine to about halfway of the said column. This means that the ribcage does not entirely protect the back because it only serves to cover the upper area of the back. The ribcage ends in the middle part of the spine that is why the area right after such portion up to the hips is not much protected. The width of the upper back is then defined by the bones of the scapula together with the flat and broad bones of the shoulder.
The Back Muscles
Together with the great bone structures in the back are muscles that work to facilitate motion of the said area. The spinal column is bordered by different types of muscles which includes the intertransverse muscle. This muscle is responsible for controlling and facilitating the movement of the spine making it able to perform normal bending and turning. There are also other muscles in the back which include the latissimus dorsi and the trapezius muscle. The latissimus dorsi is a large type of muscle that forms a triangular shape covering the hips and the shoulder. On the other hand, the trapezius muscle known for its trapezoid like shape covers the area from the neck to the anterior chain, shoulders and till the last vertebra of the thoracic column known as the T12. These muscles are firmly attached to the bones and work hand in hand which each other to be able to perform different back movements.
As you may have seen, the back can have a complex structure due to the fact that they perform important functions in movement of body parts primarily the head, neck and trunk. The structure of the back makes it possible for the area to attain flexibility and stability when it comes to its movement. The structures of the back also mainly provide the strength to the trunk of the body.
The Upper Back And The Lower Back
When it comes to the complexity of structures and the strength of support, the upper back is considered to have more as compared to the lower back. The upper back has the ribs well attached to the spine thus giving the area a great support for it movement. Despite a strong support, the upper back is known to have limited movements so that it will be protected from excessive pressure and tension that can damage the spine and affect the nervous system of the body in a bad way. The upper back is the area where the thoracic vertebral column is located.
The lower back is where the lumbar vertebral column can be found and as compared to the upper back, it has lesser support structures. If the upper back has more of the limitations when it comes to movement, the lower back is known to have the flexibility when it comes to its movement because there are no ribs in the given area. The lower back allows bending in two directions, in forward and backward motion. However, despite the ability for bending, it does not facilitate twisting motion.
Important Organs Located In The Back
There are several important organs that are located in the back. First of all, there are the lungs which can be found at the upper back, covered by the ribcage. This is the reason why whenever you hear for lung sounds you do not only listen to it in front but also from the back. The kidneys are also located at the back specifically at the lower back usually on the tip of the ribcage. The kidneys are actually connected or linked to the peritoneum.
When it comes to the skin, the one on the back is usually known to be thicker with few nerve endings as compared to any other part of the trunk. In humans, the middle part of the back is usually an area that cannot be reached by hands thus it cannot be physically touched. There is also noted to be a huge area of skin noted on the back. It can be considered to be crucial if your damage the skin on your back, especially in the case of burns because it covers a large area and protects very important structures underneath. The large skin on the back is also known to have fewer nerve endings as compared to other areas of the body with large skin surface.