The foot is a very essential part of the body because it serves a great part in the maintenance of body posture and movement. It is the distal part of the body which is used to carry the weight. Despite its small structure as compared to the other parts of the body, it is still able to perform its function for body support. It is also very important in locomotion because it helps a person in walking, running and all other kinds of movements involving the transfer from one place to other. The foot is known to have different parts and bones together with special structures which are the nails.
The foot together with the ankle is considered to be a very strong structure with a lot of bones amounting to 26. There are also about 33 joints wherein 20 of them are articulated already. There are also a lot of muscles, ligaments and even tendons in this part of the body making the foot and ankle a strong structure that can definitely carry the weight of the entire body.
The Parts Of The Foot: Hindfoot, Midfoot And Forefoot
There are actually different parts of the foot and they are categorized into three. The three parts of the foot are the hindfoot, midfoot and the forefoot. The hindfoot is located in the near posterior part of the foot. It serves as the boundary between the lower leg and the foot. It is made up of the talus or the ankle bone together with the calcaneus or the heel bone. The lower leg, through the tibia and the fibula is connected to the talus or the ankle bone thus forming the basic structure of the ankle. On the other hand, the calcaneus is connected to the talus. The calcaneus is considered to be the largest bone of the foot serving as the main support of the said area. This bone is protected by a layer of fat which serves as a cushion.
The second part of the bone is known as the midfoot which are made up or composed of different bones. These bones are the navicular, cuboid and the three cuneiform bones. They serve as shock absorbers of the foot by forming arches in the said area. They are connected tightly to the hindfoot and the forefoot by means of muscles which are known as plantar fascia.
The last part of the foot is known as the forefoot which is the one made up of the five toes. The toes are actually composed of different bones. First of all, the five proximal long bones of the forefoot are known as the metatarsals. The bones of the toes are called phalanges which has varying number of bones for the toes. The phalanges of the big toe are known to be only two as compared to the three phalanges of the other four toes. The area of the toes, like any other bony part of the body has is joints as well. In the case of the foot, the joints between the phalanges of bones of the toes are known as interphalangeal spaces. Aside from this, there is also a joint that can be found between the phalanges and the metatarsals. This joint is known as the metatarsophalangeal space or MTP. If you may not have been aware, there is also the part of the foot which serves to form an arc on the top of the foot. This part is known as the instep of the foot. The instep is the arched area of the upper part of the foot between the toes and the ankle.
The Arches Of The Foot
The foot of the body can also be divided into three different arches. The three arches are known to be the two longitudinal arches and the single transverse arch. These arches are maintained in good structure through the means of different muscles, foot bones and ligaments. These arches are given the ability to move less during weight bearing periods so that they could be able to maintain stability for the body. The two longitudinal arches have their own distinctive characteristics. First of all, the longitudinal arch found in the middle extends from the bone of the heel passing through the ankle bone or the talus and then eventually ends in the three middle metatarsals. On the other hand, the second type is the lateral longitudinal arch which is known to be in a low position as compared to the medial longitudinal arch. The single transverse arch is noted to pass through the tarsometatarsal joints. If these arches encounter much of the pressure and tension, there is tendency for them to lose their structure and eventually fall thus leading to the existence of flat feet.
The foot is greatly supported by muscles so that it could be able to continuously perform its function in movement very well. These muscles have different classifications which are known as the extrinsic and the intrinsic muscles. The extrinsic muscles are those that can be found from the different parts of the lower leg. On the other hand, the intrinsic muscles are actually found just within the foot structure itself.
There can be a lot of muscles attached to the foot from the leg and these are known as extrinsic muscles. Almost all of the muscles connect to the foot except for the popliteal muscle. The extrinsic muscles are even more separated into anterior and posterior groups which can be still further divided to subgroups and different layers. As you can see, the foot may definitely be a small part of the body but with its great number of strong support structures, you can truly prove that it can be able to perform its several functions from movement to carrying of weight effectively.
The anterior group has its own subgroup which includes the extensor, group and the peroneal group. On the other hand, the posterior group can also be divided into subgroups as well which are the muscles of the big toe and the muscles of the little toe. muscles of the big toe.
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