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Are Domestic Cats A Threat To The Environment?

By Edited Aug 16, 2016 0 10

Cat Hunting by Jsome at flickr (24960)

There are several subjects which are extremely difficult to discuss because even a mention raises emotions. One such topic is the domestic cat and its impact on the environment.

To explain my standpoint first, I love all animals and as a result have started to design my garden to favour wildlife. So far I have had some success with two hedgehogs living under my shed and dozens of birds visiting my feeders and birdbath daily. There is a threat to my plans however. The vicinity of my home is overpopulated with cats. These are not feral cats as far as I can tell but domestic cats let lose by their owners. Many times these creatures have entered my garden to hunt and have scared the birds away: indeed, many times they have killed the very birds I have been attracting.

As a result I have been researching the best ways to discourage cats from my garden, something I will cover later, but I also started to consider the wider picture: are cats introduced by humans having an overall impact?

Of course I will be looking from my position in Britain but this is clearly a consideration throughout the world. It is difficult to estimate the global domestic cat population, as there are so many feral and stray cats, which indicates one of the problems immediately, but it is estimated there are in excess of 76 million in the USA (the largest singe population) and 7.7 million in the United Kingdom.

The British Mammal Society reported in 2001 that cats were annually responsible for the deaths of an estimated 200 million mammals, 55 million birds, 10 million reptiles and amphibians and 10 million other creatures in this one country alone. Columbia University's Introduced Species Summary Project revealed that the Guadalupe Storm Petrel and at least three other seabirds became extinct in the islands off the California coast through predation by cats. The Audubon Society estimates the US population of cats kills several billion small animals every year. Reports from Australia, New Zealand and Mauritius indicate that several native bird species have also been exterminated in the same way.

The BBC wildlife presenter Chris Packham is a particular critic of cats. "We have got to face up to the fact that the devastation of our wildlife by these serial killers is a serious problem that has to be tackled." He suggests a licensing system similar to that used for dogs and a widening of an Australian scheme that rounds up cats found outside their home properties at night. The British Trust for Ornithology has echoed his views and Wildlife Trusts around Britain have also acknowledged the problem, particularly as cats have threatened bat conservation projects.

Intriguingly The Royal Society For The Protection of Birds is more conciliatory about the impact cats have on the bird population. "It is likely that most of the birds killed by cats would have died anyway from other causes before the next breeding season, so cats are unlikely to have a major impact on populations." They do concede cats are a problem in some vulnerable habitats though. This relaxed attitude may indicate one of the problems of the argument: some environmentalists are cat owners too.

Domestic cats kill not for food but for sport and to satisfy their natural instincts. Frequently they play with their prey for up to thirty minutes before killing them. Derek Conway, the Chief Executive of the Cats Protection League charity, says "Humans should stop playing God with nature. The feline's instinct is to hunt and it is wrong for humans to attempt to intervene in that natural order. Part of the charm of a cat is its natural behaviour." Unwittingly Mr Conway has established the problem. Mankind is playing God by introducing a large number of cats to the natural environment. However 'natural' they may be they are still an invasive species alien to the natural ecosystem. This was always going to upset the delicate natural order and environmental balance. The problem is, as always, with irresponsible cat owners.

Derek Conway also supports a curfew for cats as he recognises a problem irresponsible cat owners have. When such people allow their cat to roam they somehow think it will be safe. Cats regularly disappear however and this is because they are entering the realm of the wild with its dangers including cars and competition. Depending on where you are in the world there are other animals that may consider cats part of the food chain. Equally evolution is ensuring cats do not have it all their own way: I have witnessed magpies attacking and chasing off a cat for example.

There is clearly a need to control cats more, whether you are a cat owner or consider them a problem. However it should be borne in mind cats can have a limited use especially in reducing rat populations.

Cat owners should consider not releasing their pet into the outside world, certainly at night, or at least should fit them with a collar with a bell or electronic alarm so wildlife can hear them approaching.

The Columbia University report notes that sterilization is an option and this has been enforced by several local authorities around the world, particularly against feral cats. On Marion Island off the southern coast of Africa all cats were entirely eliminated. Obviously it would be preferable if owners took responsibility for their own cats and leave the authorities to deal with feral felines.

If you find cats to be a pest in your garden there are several humane methods to discourage them. Electronic sonic devices can be quite effective, as can peppers and sprays, although the latter need respreading after a fall of rain and some brands can discourage other animals and birds too. Some plants can be used particularly prickly varieties, which the cats find uncomfortable. Cats supposedly dislike Rosemary and some mints too. Keeping a dog would also discourage them.

When I started my research into the excess numbers of cats I was expecting to find I was wrong but was surprised at the evidence showing there is a problem. Softhearted cat owners believe themselves to be animal lovers but forget their fluffy pet hunts and kills other animals. No matter where you are in the world if you release your cat outside you endanger much of the wildlife in the vicinity.

Nobresca by irene nobrega at flickr

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Comments

Aug 21, 2010 6:28pm
pedrolobo
Dear Charlie,

Let me start by saying that I keep my cats indoors—for their own safety, mostly. Still, I am acutely aware of their natural tendencies as predators, and strive to be both a good neighbor and good steward of the environment, including the area’s wildlife. That said, I must take issue with the “evidence” you present regarding the impact of free-roaming cats on birds.

To begin with, you write that The Mammal Society study found “cats… annually responsible for the deaths of an estimated 200 million mammals, 55 million birds, 10 million reptiles and amphibians and 10 million other creatures in this one country alone.” I’m not sure where these figures came from—the figures from the study to which you refer are HALF of that (as you can see here: http://www.abdn.ac.uk/~nhi775/cat_predation.htm). What’s more, the authors state quite plainly: “Our estimates of the total numbers of animals brought home by cats throughout Britain should be treated with requisite caution and these figures do not equate to an assessment of the impact of cats on wildlife populations.”

While I cannot speak directly to your comment about the Audubon Society estimate of “several billion small animals every year” killed by cats, I can tell you that they rely quite heavily on the American Bird Conservancy for such information. And the ABC is, to be very blunt about it, responsible for what has been described (accurately, in my opinion) as a witch hunt where free-roaming cats are concerned. Their so-called scientific claims are littered with exaggerations, misrepresentations, errors, and bias.

Neither the ABC nor the Audubon Society ever brings up the issue of compensatory predation—what’s sometimes called “the doomed surplus”—the very point made by the Royal Society For The Protection of Birds in your article.

You say you’re “surprised at the evidence showing there is a problem.” Let me assure you: the REAL surprise comes when you drill down into this evidence. The science that the ABC and the Audubon Society—along with other organizations—are relying on tends to be deeply flawed. And there’s not nearly as much of it as you might think. Again, look closely and you’ll find that what appears at first glance to be broad agreement on the impacts of free-roaming cats, in fact, can be traced to just a handful of dubious studies.

Which is exactly what I’ve done over the past nine months or so. And I’ve made it available publicly via my blog, Vox Felina (www.voxfelina.com). As I’ve noted repeatedly on the blog, there are legitimate issues to be debated concerning free-roaming cats (e.g., regarding the efficacy, environmental impact, and morality of Trap-Neuter-Return). But attempts at an honest, productive debate are hampered—if not derailed entirely—by the bogus claims so often put forward by opponents of free-roaming cats/TNR.

I invite you and your readers to review—and critique—my analysis and commentary. And, most important, to become part of this important debate, armed with a fuller understanding of the issues.

Peter J. Wolf
www.voxfelina.com
Jul 28, 2011 11:01pm
Woodsman
What gets me is that you doubt all others' findings, but you never research YOUR OWN motives and results.

1. The TNR "vacuum effect" is a TOTAL AND COMPLETE LIE. I proved it on my own land by destroying all the cats. NONE returned. Others have found the very same thing to be true. Unless there are fools like you to REPLACE the cats again and again, NONE come in of their own accord.

2. A well-fed feral-cat destroys MORE wildlife than a starving one. The healthier they are, the more they kill. There's even proof of this online with Disney's feral-cat colony in one of their theme parks. They are all well fed, but does that stop them from destroying all the native rodents or any birds that happen to come into the park? NO.

3. Call "death by attrition" for what it REALLY is. Animal abuse, cruelty to animals, and abandonment of animals. ALL punishable by fines and prison sentences in many many places in the USA as well as around the globe.

4. None of you carry any liability insurance for all the damages you do to everyone else's lives, health, property, and animals.

5. The definition of "Biological Warfare" perfectly describes what TNR-advocates are engaged in. On a two-fold level no less. Not only are YOUR cats dangerous biological agents that are harmful to human, animal, and even plant life; but the dangerous diseases that cats spread everywhere are also dangerous biological agents that are harmful to human and animal life. YOU COULD ALL BE CHARGED with the international crime of Biological-Warfare. And with luck, hanged until dead if that is still the punishment for these crimes you've committed against all of nature and all of humanity. Putting a crate of anthrax in the hands of a terrorist is safer than putting a cat in the hands of someone like you. The terrorist may not use that dangerous biological agent to do harm. But YOU most certainly will use your disease infested cats to do exactly that.

6. TNR advocates are nothing but criminally-irresponsible cat-hoarders. Only now, instead of keeping them in their homes, they hide behind the fact that they're doing this for the good of everyone and spread their cat-hoarding amongst all neighborhoods and countrysides. Cat-hoarding is a MENTAL ILLNESS. SEEK HELP.

7. Shall I go on? I can PROVE that every last principle of your TNR behavior BS is just that, total and complete self-deluded psychotic BS!
Jun 5, 2011 12:49pm
Woodsman
Jun 5, 2011 12:50pm
Woodsman
Don't, for even one moment, fall for the song and dance about cat-lovers being animal-lovers, they are anything but that. They don't give one damn about any other animals nor even other humans. Cat-lovers are just like cats, the only thing they care about are themselves.

Their TNR (trap, neuter, release) programs are a dismal failure too. A smokescreen and time & money waster. Don't let anyone try to convince you otherwise. Do a search online for the truth about all TNR failures. Cats are an invasive species. Bred by man for man 19s purposes through selective-breeding, a form of genetic engineering. They are NOT an indigenous species anywhere on the planet today and have NO PLACE in nature. They have NO natural predators due to their bold patterns in their coats. ALL wildlife sees this as the universal symbol for toxic or olfactory defense mechanisms and won't go near them, even if starving. They have no more right to be out in the natural world than some genetically engineered insect that, if released out into nature, would destroy all wildlife. JUST AS CATS DO. A cat destroying wildlife is NO MORE NATURAL than if someone was raising piranha for pets and then dumping a tank of them into your bath with you in it. In fact, this would be even MORE natural, the piranha haven't been genetically engineered through selective breeding to make them unique from all other fishes.

These invasive-species that are released into TNR cat-colonies will still be decimating the food-chain for all native wildlife. If you feed a TNR cat-colony they kill even more wildlife. A well-fed cat kills more animals than a starving one. They don't stop killing other animals just because they're no longer hungry. The healthier they are the more they kill. It's what they do, it's what they are. Lousy little killing machines, nothing more.

It's not just the loss of bird populations either. Feral cats and farmers that let theirs roam free have decimated the natural food-chain in my woods. The resident foxes, owls, and other predator animals no longer had a food source. The feral cats destroyed all the smaller animals that all others depended on. The native species all starved to death. That's what cats do to ALL native animals.

There has also been research done to prove that cats are now spreading their potentially deadly Toxoplasma gandii parasite-disease to wildlife even in remote areas.

http://www.labspaces.net/view_news_comments.php?newsID=110760

When disposing of cat carcasses now, be sure to bury them deeply enough or incinerate them so no other wildlife can become infected by them from eating the cat-meat. Wear gloves while doing so to protect yourself as well. Women who are pregnant can have their child born with severe neural birth defects (microcephaly or hydrocephaly) or miscarry or be still-born; or those with compromised immune systems (taking anti-rejection medication for transplants and skin-grafts at ANY time during your lifetime) can be deadly if you have contracted this disease. People with HIV may not be able to be kept alive by drugs if they contract this cats' disease.

I live where it is perfectly legal to defend your property and animals from destruction by others' animals. I lost count after dispatching the first 20 vermin with a good .22, outfitted with laser-sight and zoom rifle-scope. I didn't have to waste even one bullet, making this solution highly economical as well. Think of how many dollars and hours of your lives that you have spent trapping, transporting, calling, complaining, restoring damaged property, et.al. ... and still all the problems that these useless cat-lovers have caused remains. If your aim is good this is far more humane than methods that "humane" societies use. Instead of dying a slow death by animal-shelter methods they don't even know they've been shot. It is now the preferred method for disposing of feral cats in many states. (In fact, shooting is too good for them. By all rights, to make things perfectly even, they should be made to starve a slow death, just like they caused to all the predator wildlife. Or maimed to die a slow death, just like they did to all the prey they destroyed. But I'm not as inhumane as cat-lovers and their cats are.)

It's time to give cats and cat-lovers the same consideration and respect that they have for all humans and all wildlife--that means NONE. Don't waste your time arguing with disrespectful, inconsiderate, and ignorant cat-lovers either, as I stupidly tried to do for years. Just do what needs to be done and there'll be nothing to argue about.

This year owls and foxes have returned to my woods. Through a large effort of my own, including raising and releasing native mice and voles to help repopulate some of the species that their useless cats destroyed. Their lousy cats are finally gone. But I'll shoot again on first-sight the first chance I get. The rewards for ridding one's land of ALL cats and restoring the native wildlife population are far too great.

If you don't have approval from your local law enforcement like I did, to fix the myriad problems that all "cat-lovers" have created for all of humanity and the world, then you might be interested in a far more effective cat management program than TNR. It's called SSS -- for Shoot, Shovel, & Shut-up. It's now popular worldwide and "legal" everywhere. It may be the only thing that saves us from this ecological disaster that all the spineless and ecologically-ignorant law-makers have created. The drastic problems that cat-lovers have created by their blatant disrespect and lack of consideration for their environment, all other humans, and all animals now requires drastic actions by all those who actually care. It takes real strength of heart to do the right thing.

Here's a little insight to help you understand the root-cause of the problem. Now you'll know EXACTLY why cat-lovers do what they do. It really has nothing at all to do with their concern for cats, nor even the lives of anyone nor anything else, quite the opposite.

Human Territorial Behavior By Expendable Proxy

I have come to the inexorable conclusion that the vast majority of cat-lovers and cat-owners that let their destructive invasive-species roam free, and especially those that defend the rights of feral cats to overtake public property and wildlife areas, are only (cowardly) using cats as a proxy for their own territorial behavior. Not unlike uneducated inner-city youth that will disrespectfully and inconsiderately use loud music to stake-out a territory for themselves. As long as they can have one of their possessions defecate in another's yard or destroy their property, animals, and wildlife, and the yard-owner not have any recourse; the cat-owner owns that territory. It's time to put a stop to them using their "cute kitty" excuse for usurping and stealing others' property. If they want territory they can buy it just like anyone else. Instead they're using underhanded, disrespectful, and manipulative means. By putting (and sacrificing) live animals in the path of their envy and greed. Again proving why they don't care about cats nor anyone else at all. Cat-lovers only really want your lawn, yard, or forest while making all others and all other animals suffer for what they can't have nor own. Bottom line--they want to control you and your property. That's ALL that "cat-lovers" are really after. It's why they don't care at all if their cat nor any other animals, nor even other humans, get harmed by their goals and (lack of) values in life.
Jun 5, 2011 12:51pm
Woodsman
Jun 7, 2011 7:12pm
Woodsman
Why TNR and Cat Advocates Even Exist ...

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toxoplasmosis#Behavioral_changes

It has been found that Toxoplasma gondii parasite is capable of changing the brains of whatever organism it infests. In mice, they lose the fear of cats and are even attracted to cat-urine. Making the asexual portion of the Toxoplasma gondii life-cycle faster to complete in order to replicate more quickly into its sexual reproduction phase in all host cats. This loss of fear and apprehension manifesting itself in humans in a similar manner, even when common-sense tells them they should depend on that sense of fear or doubt for their own survival.

Here are other ways that this parasite have been known to alter the thinking patterns of humans: http://wildlifeprofessional.org/blog/?p=3929

I strongly suspect that it might even be responsible for all cat-lovers' wholly contradictory behavior of putting cats, all other animals, and even all humans in harm's-way through their adamant insistence of promoting TNR programs, just to ensure the survival and spread of more Toxoplasma gondii parasites throughout the food-chain and in more humans. They are, in effect, being controlled against all reason and common-sense by the very parasite that is reproducing in their cats.

The stuff that sci-fi used to be made of come to reality. Real-life "pod-people". They can't think nor reason beyond the need of ensuring the survival of Toxoplasma gondii. It won't let them.
Jun 28, 2011 10:43am
Woodsman
Trapping and/or sterilizing as a solution is a failed concept from Day-One.

There are now about 150 million feral-cats just in the USA, and 86 million pet-cats (60 million of which are still allowed to kill all wildlife), this means that the cat-population is already oversaturated for a long time now. There's only 311 million people in the USA. 2 cats now exist for every 3 people, from infant to senior. All thanks to those who outlawed destroying them in a faster, more efficient, often more-humane, and more cost-effective manner by shooting them. While they also promoted their slow, random-chance, inefficient, and failed trapping programs.

Nobody wants more than 86 million cats for pets. Now take into consideration their exponential yearly growth-rate of x^5.4. An average litter of 5 new cats every 5-6 months. 2 cats can become 42 in only a year's time. Increasing at the rate of powers of 5.4 EVERY YEAR. No amount of trapping them (if you could even get them all to enter traps), nor valuable resources (transport costs, vet costs, etc.), man-hours, nor money will ever catch up to their growth rate. You now have an ecological, human-health, animal-welfare, and financial disaster on your hands, ALL thanks to cat-lovers and TNR proponents. The faster that cats can be destroyed the better it MIGHT be. Even when using guns and having all stray and feral cats shot on-sight we might still not be able to catch up to their exponential population-growth rate. Not even until every last land animal (including humans) is gone from this earth, due to cats destroying the whole food-chain, with nothing but cannibalistic cats left walking the land. No exaggeration, do the math. Exactly that can happen in your lifetimes. Just ask any TNR group how many cats they've trapped this year. They haven't even begun to scratch the surface of the problem that THEY CAUSED and are only exacerbating with their blatant lies.

Your best bet is to make cat-ownership AND care-taking of feral-cats a FELONY with hefty fines or prison sentences for anyone failing to comply until this problem that they created is brought under control by any and all means possible. Shoot-on-sight is, without a doubt, the fastest, most economical (0.3 cent to 3 cents per cat depending on ammo prices), and most effective method available. This is also the only method that doesn't endanger nor harass any other animals with non-discriminatory random-chance traps. Though avoid poisons if at all possible, that once entered into the food-chain, will go on to destroy more of the very wildlife that you are hoping to save from destruction by cats. Whatever you do though, please bury or incinerate the carcasses so all the deadly diseases that cats now carry won't go on to further infect the native wildlife, nor any other humans that might come in contact with them.

Here is an interesting post from someone who believed in all the lies she was told about TNR practices, found at http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/science/2011/05/the-secret-lives-of-feral-cats/

"I have been battling a feral cat population explosion on my farmette for 7 years. TNR does not work, as the trapped and neutered cats do not keep new cats from moving in and adding kittens. I have trapped over 25 kittens, tamed them, and found homes for them, but every spring there are dozens more. I have spent countless dollars neutering females and males, but they just keep coming! I have few wild birds now, fewer snakes, and there are bunny parts all over my property (cats must not particularly like the back feet). I wish there was a birth-control feed available, since many of these feral cats don 19t come near the traps even when hungry. I wish every pet owner would neuter their cats so that these colonies weren 19t added to.
These are not happy feral cats, they frequently have infected eyes, worms, and are skinny and mangey. I don 19t know what the answer is, but even in the country, a feral cat doesn 19t live a secure, comfortable life.

Comment by Dawn Hawes 14 June 21, 2011 @ 9:38 am"

And YOU TOO can have a financially-stressed life ruled by cats and cat-lovers and have all your native wildlife destroyed JUST LIKE THIS if you also believe in TNR *LIES*.


Here's a few questions that I (and EVERYONE) need to ask all TNR advocates and feral-cat caretakers ... though they never answer these questions, for ANYONE.

Don't be shy, TNR people, any of you are free to answer any of these questions for once in your lives ...

Once you have claimed ownership of these cats through your actions, do you carry enough liability-insurance for all the damages YOUR CATS will do (not if) when you release them? Or for all the health-care costs YOUR CATS will cause to all humans with all the diseases YOUR CATS now carry? Like Toxoplasma gondii, which becomes a lifelong illness once YOUR CATS infect a human with it. Or, should one of YOUR CATS contract rabies during its lifetime because you were unable to trap it again to vaccinate it. How many $MILLIONS in liability insurance do you carry if one of YOUR RABID CATS should bite a human? How about anyone who has lost business due to YOUR CATS running off customers because of the diseases they spread everywhere? Like what happened in Miami where YOUR CATS spread hookworm on all the beaches where YOUR CATS defecated. Can you repay everyone for their $MILLIONS, if not $BILLIONS, in losses of health, life, business, and property? Do you even know what the charge is if YOUR CATS are found destroying endangered plant or animal species? Do you have enough money to pay for any daily or weekly land-use fees that people will be charging you for you using THEIR LAND for YOUR CATS? Usually all done without anyone's permission I might add.

Are you doing all of this completely irresponsibly without regard to the health and welfare of any other animal nor human life? If so, have you considered you could be thrown in prison for a long long time for all of this shamefully irresponsible and extremely criminal behavior of yours?

You might want to start thinking about these things. Your actions DO have consequences, and those are consequences that you may not enjoy ... for the rest of your miserable, unthinking, uncaring, inconsiderate, and wholly disrespectful cat-loving lives.
Jul 24, 2011 6:59pm
Woodsman
Here's another Fun-Fact that trap-advocates fail to realize, in their infinite ignorance of how animal-behavior and evolution works.

Those cats that have learned to avoid and evade all trapping methods are the next generation to survive. Ever hear the old adage, "If you invent a better mousetrap nature will just invent a better mouse."?

So now, thanks to the supreme stupidity and ignorance of trap-advocates, we have a race of freely roaming cats in all countrysides of every continent which are passing on their "how to survive" behavior to all their offspring, both genetically and behaviorally. Now the next phase of millions of feral-cats won't even be able to be trapped. This is just how amazingly stupid trap-advocates are. You thought 150,000,000 feral cats was bad? In colloquial terms, "You ain't seen nuthin' yet!"

There's a reason the phrase "hunted to extinction" is so well-known in all cultures across all lands. It is the ONLY method that is faster than a species can breed and adapt to.
Jul 24, 2011 6:59pm
Woodsman
Moral of the Story:

I wasted 15 YEARS of my life arguing with demented cat-lovers. During which THEIR CATS DESTROYED ALL WILDLIFE ON MY LAND.

It wasn't until I STOPPED arguing and did what needed to be done -- SHOOT ALL CATS -- that my land, all the wildlife on my land, and my life itself started to return to normal. I no longer have to go out twice a day on cat-patrol to shoot more cats nor waste more time and energy burying them to protect wildlife from the diseases they carry.

I hope the rest of you learn from this lesson. You can argue with the Toxoplasmosis parasites in the cat-lovers' brains until you are blue in the face and your whole planet is destroyed by their cats, but it'll never get rid of the cats that have destroyed your life and all wildlife.

JUST DO WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE -- DESTROY THEM.

Only later, AFTER your land and life are 100% free of cats, can you have fun educating the ineducable. Use the time you got back from their cats taking over your life to share the best ways to destroy all cats. (Without harming any other wildlife nor humans.) Then if you want, make YOUR life THEIR problem. Just as they made THEIR cats YOUR problem for all these many years. It's only fair! Because that's what it's really all about, it's not about cats at all. THEY ONLY WANT TO CONTROL YOUR LIFE WITH THEIR CATS. You can put a stop to that immediately BY DESTROYING THEIR CATS. And there's not ONE THING they can do about it if you do it right. They'll no longer have any part of your life.
Jul 28, 2011 10:49pm
Woodsman
By the way, look up the term these TNR advocates just LOVE to use on how they reduce their feral-cat numbers, their candy-coating feel-good term of "Death by Attrition". This means that their cats will die from disease, cat-attacks, animal-attacks, exposure to the elements, being road-kill, starvation, and any other means that drastically shortens the life of those cats. ALL their cats suffering for how many months or years it takes to die that way. In many parts of this country and the world this clearly falls under the guidelines for cruelty to animals, animal-abuse, and animal-abandonment laws.

If you want to raise revenue for your towns and cities in order to deal with this invasive-species ecological-disaster properly, start charging all these TNR advocates with severe fines and imprisonment for CRUELTY TO ANIMALS. Not only are they cruelly torturing cats, but also all the wildlife that they inflict their cats upon.

They're not doing this out of any goodness of their hearts. THEY DON'T HAVE HEARTS. Proved, 100%.
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