COOKED IN HEAVEN
It is recorded in the Bible’s book of Genesis 1:29 that after God had created the first man and woman, he gave them every herb bearing seed and every tree bearing fruit for food. Since fruits get eaten after they have become ripe, it meant that these first human beings did not have to cook them. In other words, once ripen fruits are ready cooked thus they are edible as is still the case today.
The question which arises from the above information is where the fruits were and are still being cooked during that ancient time and today respectively. This is because the act of cooking involves the use of fire yet when fruits become ripe on trees hardly any fire is applied for that purpose. In other words, they become ripe naturally. So, what is all this ado about fruits being ready cooked yet no fire is used to cook them!
When fruits become ripe on respective trees, they do so through supernatural power which is referred to as a blessing. No wonder in the above referred biblical book of Genesis 1: 1-31 it is recorded that by word God created everything natural vegetation inclusive according to their kinds. He did this when in Genesis 1:11, he pronounced that let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed and the fruit tree yielding fruit after its kind whose seed is in itself, and it was so. In other words, God’s word and in this case his spoken word is powerful thus a blessing.
So, from that time onwards vegetation continues to grow on the earth’s surface courtesy to the word of God. Since blessings flow from God whose centre of power is believed to be in heaven above down to the fruits on trees here on earth, it means that their ripening process begin from on high thus cooked in heaven. No wonder it takes some time before fruits become ripe here on earth.
The second question which arises from the immediate above explanation on the ripening of fruits here on earth is on the reality of the existence of cookers and or cooking fire in heaven. This is because we are not able to see them from down here on earth in case they exist up in heaven. In the Bible’s book of Exodus 14:4-35 in the holy Bible, it is recorded that when the Israelites were being led by Moses in the wilderness from Egypt to the promised land of Canaan, God rained for them quail and manna for their meals from heaven above. These were readily edible thus cooked in heaven. This means that existing in heaven above are fire-cookers-cooks.
In turn therefore, the issue of quail and manna above tends to qualify a belief by certain people that as it is on earth so it is in heaven. This is in relation to the promise by Jesus Christ in the Bible’s Gospel books that in heaven there are many mansions which he would prepare for his faithful disciples thus his return there. This belief is further supported by the Bible’s book of Revelation 21:21 that inside heaven are twelve gates made out of pearls while the streets are made of gold. If these factors are true then it is worth to note that the technology on high is supposedly superior quality in contrast to the one below. This can be proved by the fact that all scientific inventions-artistic creativities-discoveries by human beings here on earth originated from God. This is because he is the one who gave human beings the brains, the intelligence and the wisdom to do all the above mentioned.
On the other hand, why is it that in the Bible’s book of Matthew 22:29-30 in the holy Bible it is stated that in the resurrection thus in the kingdom of God there will be no marrying or giving to marriage since people will exist as the angels in heaven thus single!
The answer is that certain things and happenings in heaven are not the same as those as on earth such that some that exist or occur on here on earth will be done away with in the fullness of time in heaven. A good example was when Jesus Christ promised his disciples during the last supper according to the Bible’s books of Matthew 26:29 and Luke 22:15-16 that next time he eats and drinks with them will be in the kingdom of God. Yet on the other hand, it is stated in the holy Bible’s book of 1st Corinthians 6:13 that God will do away with both food and the stomach. This is in reference to the fullness of time since his presence will be a satisfaction to the human beings there-in. The reality of this is based on the fact that since God is the creator and the provider of food, his presence satisfies because he himself is life. Therefore, learn that though food does not provide life the way God does, on the humane side, it sustains it.
Otherwise, the earlier explained ripening of fruits which was likened to having been cooked in heaven is what scientists understand in terms of planting a seed in the soil, rain water or irrigation water causing it to germinate and grow into a plant then the sun’s heat ripening its fruits. However, not all garden produce that are ready for harvest are edible since non fruits require cooking on fire or on cookers here on earth.
In other words, when God gave the first man and the first woman food to eat, it was two fold since he gave them fruits as ready edible harvest and every herb that bear seeds thus plant harvest that would need cooking on fire or cookers. This needs to be understood in the following way, that though fruits provide the human body with vitamins-minerals-amino acids similar to vegetables, it also requires carbohydrates and proteins that are mostly found in other garden food like maize- rice-millet and beans-green grams-peas respectively among other cereals that need cooking. Such seed based food had to wait for the discovery of fire therefore as a fact which qualifies the earlier mentioned point that discoveries, scientific inventions and artistic creativities did not occur accidentally but involved the touch of God as the creator of mankind’s brain and who also provided it with intelligence and wisdom that it has.
From the above, it is evident that God did not provide the first human beings with animal flesh for food in accompaniment to food from plants. This meant that garden food was sufficient for their up keep thus it was most nutritious as it had no side effect similar to today. This factor remains true so long as such plant food is allowed to grow naturally in the garden and is not interfered with, say, through certain improper scientific means. In other words, they were and are still cooked in heaven fully in the case of fruits and certain plantains like bananas contrary to cereals and vegetables that are partly cooked there. No wonder the presence of the nutrients that are mentioned above in them. This means that their cooking had and as is still the case today is to be completed here on earth.
The above immediate deliberations above bring us to a point where it is significant to compare food from plants and food from animals as follows.
FOOD FROM PLANTS VERSUS FOOD FROM ANIMALS
At this point, it is obvious that the original source of human food was plants. How come then that human beings feed on animal flesh too these days! The answer to this will be revealed below later. Meanwhile, let us have insight into the two sources of human food now that we are aware that human beings have an alternative source of the same thus the flip side of feeding on animal flesh at the expense of food from plants is as follows:-
Plants possess basic nutrients for both human beings and herbivorous animals that feed on them. This means that human beings who feed on the flesh of herbivorous animals receive nutrients from plants indirectly through them after they have fed on plants. This translates into less reception of nutrients by the human body in contrast to doing the same by feeding directly on plants.
The above issue becomes complicated if human beings feed on the flesh of omnivorous animals and even becomes complex if they feed on carnivorous animals. This is because the feeding progression on these categories of animals respectively will result regressively as nutrients are received by the human body from plants indirectly through animals. The quantity of regression on the reception of nutrients will be less if one feeds on the flesh of a herbivorous animal first while the same will be average if one feeds on the flesh of an omnivorous animal and it will be much if one feeds on the flesh of a carnivorous animal last. The reason for this will be as follows.
Herbivorous animals feed only on plants thus they receive nutrients from them directly. On the other hand, omnivorous animals feed on both plant and animal flesh thus they receive approximately half of plant nutrients directly from them and half of the same plant nutrients indirectly from animal flesh while carnivorous animals feed only on animal flesh thus they receive plant nutrients indirectly too. If the animal flesh that they feed on are of other carnivorous animals then the chance of receiving plant nutrients become minimal. This is because such animals do not feed on plants directly.
At this point, the issue of how and when human beings began to feed on animal flesh comes in handy as was indicated above. In other words, due to human appetite for animal flesh since it is mouth watering, God responded to their request to feed on the same by providing them with animals for food as is recorded in the book of Leviticus 11:1-47 in the holy Bible. However, this was conditional due to his concern for the above deliberations on the reception of healthy nutrients from garden food or plants by the human body. So, the conditions were that he allowed human beings to feed only on the flesh of animals with parted thus divided hoofs thus cloven footed and that eat cud which he considered to be clean, for example, cattle for red meat. This is because being herbivorous cattle feed on grass unlike most un-hoofed animals that are either omnivorous or carnivorous.
From the above, it is evident that clawed animals were omitted for the same purpose because most of them feed on flesh thus they are carnivorous. In addition, God permitted human beings to feed on certain birds like chicken and certain fish like tilapia for white meat. The birds issue qualifies the fact that quail which God had provided the children of Israel in the wilderness alongside manna to feed on while on their way to the Promised Land of Canaan from Egypt were birds thus white meat which has been certified by nutritional scientists to be healthier than red meat.
In other words, the condition of the human body depends on the type of food one feeds on. So, both hardy and juicy garden food moisturizes and softens the human body thus makes it healthy while fleshy food tend to harden it thus make it less healthy unless it is of high quality. In turn, this means that feeding on the flesh of herbivorous animal is healthier than feeding on the one of either an omnivorous or a carnivorous animal. This is because it has more nutrients that have been provided by garden food or edible plants that it fed on while it was alive.
On the other hand, it does not mean that the flesh of animals do not have their own nutrients. They do have nutrients, for example, beef and fish meat are rich in proteins similar to beans though they have certain differences in each case. However, plant as food is more nutritious than animal flesh since it oxidizes and at the same time detoxifies the human body of impurities. No wonder God gave garden food to the first human beings to feed on instead of animals for their food.
So, fruits, cereals, vegetables and plantains do not only provide the human body with nutrients but prevent diseases from attacking it too besides curing it from the same also. This is because in addition to being nutritious they also have medicinal values in contrast to animal flesh save for milk of the herbivorous animals that is wholesomely nutritious, for example, the cow’s milk. In other words, the above referred types of food promote and sustain the human body health in such a way that one who feeds on them as balanced diet hardly depend on pharmaceutical drugs frequently for the purpose of preventing diseases and sustaining health. So, these facts bring us to the issue of sickness versus food that human beings feed on as follows.
FOOD VERSUS SICKNESS
There are many causes of sicknesses in the human body which result in various diseases that infect it. Similarly, animals get sick or infected with diseases on a wide scale in contrast to plants which experience the same minimally. In other words, flesh is prone to diseases in comparison to plants thus a qualification as to why human beings were given plants for food by God in the first instance of food provision. In other words, it was for the promotion and the maintenance of good health.
Since the topic on food versus sickness is wide thus a subject in its own right within the study of nutrition and medical science as it includes the diagnosis of diseases through relevant symptoms, the prescription of the correct diet as medicine, treatment and observation of a patient’s response to it, in order to elaborate on it exhaustively requires another forum. Therefore, it will be appropriate here-in to handle one case in relation to nutrition only as follows.
CANCER AS A CASE STUDY
Cancer is a disease of abnormal growth in the human body that develops through the multiplication of unwanted cells. Abnormal growth which is referred to as tumor by another name can either be benign or malignant. In case of the latter, it usually invades and infects the normal body tissues and organs. Both benign and malignant tumors have the tendency of recurring after removal from the human body thus they are cancerous. This means that a malignant growth in the human body that is at an advanced stage is usually acute such that the survival of a patient becomes minimal.
No wonder cancer is an uphill task to doctors in comparison to the Human Immune Virus & Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or HIV/AIDS which it is equally fatal. The reason is that though the latter has no known cure as by the year 2012, it is managed through the use of anti-retroviral medication and certain recommended diet unlike cancer which though has other methods of management so long as it is at an early stage, has no cure too by the same year.
So, cancer that has been detected at an early stage is basically controlled by preventing the growth of tumor as much as possible thus prevention is better than cure. Ironically, the same applies to HIV/AIDS but through human will unless anti-Human Immune Virus will be availed in future by scientists. Therefore, it is vital for an individual to go for seasonal medical check ups for the detection of cancer.
- Similar to the non existence of the cure for cancer as was indicated above, medical research scientists have not discovered the cause of cancer too as by the year 2012. This is despite the fact that reportedly recent research on the same has revealed leads towards unnatural crop and animal husbandry hopefully offering answers to some of the causes of cancer if the same will be proved in future. Though some of such factors are deliberated on below in relation to the possible cause of cancer, the following are often used to trace its origins: hereditary factors-the presence of old or dead cells in the human body-the environment-lifestyles that are related to diet and or certain habits as follows:-
First and fore most, the non removal of used or unwanted cells from the human body is believed to contribute to their pile up which result in the occurrence or in the attraction of viruses and or harmful bacteria that infect the emerging new normal cells. This makes the latter cells to behave abnormally similar to the former ones thus resulting in growths or tumors.
Secondly, though it has not yet been proved, it is suspected by certain persons and some research scientists that the contemporary methods of taking care of plants that grow in the garden before they get ready to provide human beings with food, certain cooking methods and feeding on some types of food at the expense of others might be some of the contributing factors to the occurrence of cancer. Such include the spraying of vegetable with certain insecticides, the cooking or the frying of food by the use of much oil or fat, feeding more on animal flesh especially red meat at the expense of fresh vegetable-fruits-cereals-plantains, feeding on genetically modified food products especially where chemicals, say, in the name of unnatural or artificial fertilizers might have been applied at certain stages of the process, feeding on the meat of animals that had been injected with hormones for nutritional purposes while they were still alive which more than often results in obesity that is conducive for hypertension and diabetes.
As for habits, the inhaling of cigarette and cigar smoke leads to cancer of the lung. On the other hand, pipe smoking leads to cancer of the lower lip. Jagged teeth and or rough fillings of teeth can result in injury of the tongue that leads to cancer of the tongue. Syphilis of the tongue also leads to the same. The chewing of betel nut that is mixed with lime and other materials as is the common practice in certain south Asian countries like India and among people who have originated from that region and are settled in other parts of the world, leads to cancer of the mouth.
Frequent burns of the skin, for example, by smoldering charcoal, say, by wearing a kangri basket as a receptacle under the clothing at the front of the body for warmth the way many people do in Kashmir, excessive exposure to sunlight and or wind as is common among farmers and sailors, can lead to cancer of the skin.
Oestrogenic hormones of the ovary can stimulate cancerous growth. This suggests that unbalanced thus abnormal hormone action may cause cancer generally. This qualifies the earlier stated issue on meat of animals that had been injected with hormones for nutritional purposes while they were still alive. In turn, this suggests that even in cases where the science of adding more hormones to the human body no matter how genuine it is can interfere with the natural function of hormones in the same body thus caution must be observed.
From the above, it is evident that there exist several types of cancer depending on the parts of the human body that they affect. These include:-lip cancer-tongue cancer-mouth cancer-throat cancer-lung cancer-breast cancer-skin cancer-bowel or intestinal cancer-rectum cancer. The multiple variety of cancer as is deliberated above definitely calls for special attention to it since this proves its ambiguity thus it does not require negligence no matter how small an issue is suspected to lead to its cause. To do so, it is first and foremost important to know its symptoms as follows:-
SYMPTOMS OF CANCER
The symptoms of cancer include:-
- A persistent lump or the thickening of tissue especially in the lip, in the tongue or in the breast
- Blood colored discharge as irregular bleeding from an existing or a new opening in the body
- A sore that does not heal either in the mouth, on the tongue or on the lips
- Persistent indigestion or loss of appetite especially for people over forty years of age
- A sudden or a rapid change in the form, the appearance or the rate of growth of an existing mole or wart on any part of the body
- A persistent change in the normal state of the intestine as it functions
- Persistent hoarseness and cough, deep in-throat soreness or difficulty in swallowing food
With the knowledge of the above seven symptoms of cancer in various parts of the human body, one is able to learn unto understanding the management of cancer as is deliberated below.
MANAGEMENT OF CANCER
As was stated earlier on, there is actually no definite cure for cancer though it can be managed if it is detected at an early stage of its development. Therefore, the management of cancer is as follows:
- By radiation or x-ray therapy
- By chemotherapy which includes the use of nitrogen mustard
- By one changing the living and or the working environment
- By surgical removal of all tumors whether they show signs of being cancerous thus malignant or benign, non cancerous or non infectious
- By correcting jagged teeth, avoiding habits like smoking-chewing betel nut-frequent burns-excessive exposure to sunlight and or wind
- By hoping for the non inheritance of cancer through birth because nothing can be done to prevent hereditary factors since they occur naturally
- Through the detoxification of unneeded substances like fat by the use of certain scientifically researched and certified Aloe Vera syrups plus other recommended herbal supplements like. . .
- By not applying too much cooking fat or oil in food, not feeding frequently on fast food like fried chicken, fried eggs, fried red beef or fried white meat especially from animals that have been injected with nutritional hormones though the same might apply to such types of food even if they are boiled
From the above, it is worth to note that though eggs second milk in being nutritious, they are risky when fried with much cooking oil then eaten in quantity. The situation becomes more complicated when fat is used to fry them since it is a concentrate of condensed liquid oil. So, when it is converted into liquid state through boiling before use, it still retains its fat concentrate. This means that when one feeds on food that has been fried or cooked by using it then the chances of its fat causing certain side effects in the human body like the narrowing of arteries when it sticks on their walls that might lead to hypertension are high. If it is able to do this then chances are that fat concentrates which remain on the walls of arteries and or intestines for long might turn cancerous. From this possibility, imagine how cancer of the intestine might be caused! So, one should use little cooking fat or oil on food because prevention is better than cure.
Back to the eggs issue, understand that they contain a lot of cholesterol which in addition to the human body’s sterols can promote arteriosclerosis that leads to hypertension and cardio complications which scientific researchers believe have connections to cancer. This means that the use of much cooking oil especially the one with fat concentrate when frying eggs makes them to mix with cholesterol such that the result is best left for your imagination considering the deliberations on both factors above.
On the other hand, to magnify the above issue on eggs from another dimension unto your understanding, learn that feeding on one egg is proportionally equivalent as to feeding on a fully grown up cock or hen. So, the amount of nutrients and or the risks received by feeding on a fully grown cock or hen are equivalent to those provided by one egg. Therefore, the number of eggs fed on by an individual is equal to the number of cocks or hens that one would have fed on thus the risk of feeding frequently on eggs that are fried especially by the use of much cooking fat or oil in addition to cholesterol which they contain naturally.
It is also worth to note that one who feeds on fried eggs frequently tends to gain weight fast and develops throat problems easily in contrast to a non user. This does not mean that one should not feed on fried eggs but it needs to be done restrictively thus with much discipline in order to avoid diseases that are connected to obesity. Therefore, preparation of the egg dish by the use of little cooking oil besides feeding on the same once in a blue moon is recommended for better health.
As for boiled eggs, the method of preparing them which is boiling reduces the cholesterol level plus any other fats in them. Since this involves the application of the boiling point factor of water so as to determine whether they have been fully cooked or not thus their edible status in addition to not having used any cooking fat or oil to prepare them, reduces the health risks which fried eggs transmit to people who feed on them frequently.
On the other hand, the reason why contemporary food preparation is suspect to health is because people who feed frequently on boiled food and little on fried food or non at all, traditionally dried red beef-boiled eggs-non hormone injected white meat-vegetables-cereals-plantains with little or no cooking oil-fruits tend to be more healthy and are less prone to most diseases cancer inclusive as is still the case in rural Africa in contrast to the urban Africa by the year 2012.
In other words, the more urbanized a continent is the more cancertends to infect its populace and vice versa unlike in olden times when it was minimal or non existent which also poses the question on its origin. This happens in such a way that if a graph were to be drawn in relation to the urban versus the rural populace with cancer as the factor at play, the result will portray its effect more on the urban financially able than on the urban and the rural financially unable populace. This reflects people’s lifestyles thus making diet to be among the suspects since the financially able feed more on ready processed foodstuffs whose preservation methods might be questionable besides fast food which involve frying while the financially unable tend to feed more on the traditionally prepared foodstuffs that more than often include boiling.
At this point it is worth to note that before cooking oil is used to fry or boil food, it is advisable to first boil it on its own. This is because such boiling plus being used to either fry or boil food at the next stage is a sure way of transforming it from its raw unhealthy state to a healthy one. Similarly but only in one stage contrary to the cooking oil’s two, salt that is applied on food at table during meal time is uncooked thus it is in raw form and can easily cause side effects in contrast to one that is applied on food that is being cooked since at the end of the process it will be transformed from its raw unhealthy form to a healthy one.
Otherwise, to throw light on the traditionally dried red beef that was mentioned above in relation to Africa, first fresh beef is slit in a jointed style after which it is roasted in such a way that all the water in it drips off. It is then salted for preservation’s sake after which it is stored in a safe place that has enough air until it becomes stone hard. It is then cut into smaller parts before it gets boiled so as to soften it after which it is fried with little cooking oil, onions, tomatoes and or spices as stew. At the end of the cooking process, it will taste splendidly and naturally delicious. This is because of the non use of artificial food additives during its preparation more or so if it is prepared in a traditional African cooking pot made of earthen ware. It is one of the traditional dishes of the Luos of Kenya who refer to it as ring aliya meaning meat and dried respectively thus dried meat. Luos use traditional salt which they refer to as kado or bala when preparing it though it is scarce these days such that they have reverted to the contemporary sodium chloride salt.
On the origin of cooking oil or cooking fat, most of them get extracted from plants, for example, sun flower and maize. In other words, though several varieties of cooking oil are plant extracts, in their by-product conditions, they tend to shed off their original medicinal values if any in contrast to plants and their fresh saps. This is because once they get extracted from plants they tend to take the form of mined fuel though they remain edible so long as they are used for cooking food thus it is best to boil them before using them to fry or boil food as was deliberated above. No wonder the risk that they are capable of passing to the users if much of them are applied on food especially the fried ones the way most people do. So, strict control when using them to fry or boil food is important.
To qualify the above facts, it is worth to note that certain multi-national herbal medicinal companies formulate their supplements for the management of cancer with pure dietary herbs, not flesh. For example, for the prevention and the management of prostrate cancer, they use palmetto fruit-pygeum bark extract-plant sterol from safflower seed-lycopene from tomato-other fruit extracts the way quinine that is used for the treatment of malaria get extracted from Cinchona tree before it is processed into tablet form.
This does not mean that animals do not posses medicinal value as some especially certain sea creatures do have oil that is used in the processing of Omega 3 which controls hypertension effectively. In addition, fish’s meat, cattle’s beef, goat’s meat and sheep’s mutton have proteins which build the human flesh even unto doing the same in the case of anti-bodies which help the human body to withstand attacks from diseases that are easily transmitted from one person to another.
On the other hand, plants are superior to animals on medicinal value such that feeding on more garden food than on animal flesh or exclusively on food from plants thus being a vegetarian is a sure way of promoting the human body health. This is besides the recommended skimmed animal milk like that of the cow since it is herbivorous thus rich in direct plant nutrients. In other words, being a lacto vegetarian too is extra good for human health.
FOOD AS MEDICINE
From the above, it can be suggested that food from plants thus vegetables, cereals, plantains and fruitsare the basic medicine for the promotion of human health. This might be a surprise to many people but it is the reality. No wonder, at the end of doctors’ prescriptions to patients they often instruct them to take pharmaceutical drugs a certain number of times per day after meals in respect of the diseases they suffer from. The begging question is why most pharmaceutical drugs have to be taken by patients after meals instead of before meals as is usually the case with most researched herbal medicines.
The answer to the above issue is that when most pharmaceutical drugs enter into the human stomach before meals, they first react with it before they do the same to the rest of the body after their dissolution and entry into the blood stream thus they become harmful to human health. This means that in such a case they will hardly relieve or cure patients who suffer from certain diseases.
On the other hand, when the same category of drugs enter into the human stomach after meals, they first react with the food there-in unto dissolution then enter into the blood stream together in solution form. In this way, their harmful effects get neutralized such that they become helpful by relieving or curing patients from diseases.
In the case of most scientifically researched herbal medicines which also double as food supplements because they posses certain nutritional values, patients are often instructed to take them before mealsper the prescriptions. This is because when they enter into the human stomach, they do not react with it but within themselves thus they enter into the blood stream as food nutrients yet they have medicinal values. In this way, they relieve and or cure patients from diseases more effectively than when they are taken after meals.
On the other hand, the reason why certain if not most scientifically researched herbal drugs that are taken after meals tend not relieve or heal patients from diseases effectively is because similar to food, they too possess nutrients which in combination with the food that has entered into the stomach before them means that metabolism takes place for a longer time than it should. In other words, during this process the herbal medicines might lose some of their curative powers by the time they enter into the blood stream.
Contrary to the above in the case of traditionally applied curative herbal medicines, it is advisable that they be taken after meals by patients. This is because in their raw state, the medicinal concentration in them tends to be high such that they might cause drowsiness and or depression to the user if taken before meals. However, these two factors’ effects on an individual may depend on one’s body resistance to them. In other words, this issue might differ from person to person. Otherwise, the reason for the high concentration of medicinal power in them is because no scientific research unto recommended dosage has been conducted and approved though they are curative so long as the relevant ones are used to counter the diseases in question.
In other words, nutrition thus food is an important part and parcel of medicine as it aids in the treatment of diseases. This means that feeding on balanced diet especially on garden food prevents diseases from occurring in the human body thus some doctors do tell their patients that food is the first medicine.
No wonder, the creator of human kind who is believed to be God gave the first man and the first woman seed bearing herbsand tree bearing fruits thus food from herbs and trees in contrast to animal flesh to feed on. Such is food which build the human body through proteins, provide it with energy through carbohydrates thus starch and protect it from transmitted diseases through vitamins, minerals and amino acids that are provided by fruits-vegetables-plantains-cereals which become ripe while on herbs or trees which bear them partly or fully as blessings from on high thus cooked in heaven as was deliberated above earlier on.
COPYRIGHT: WILFRED OTIENO 2012