Caspian Sea - the greatest in the world enclosed water basin on the border of Europe and Asia, called the sea of magnitude (371 km2) and the salinity of the water.
It is believed that the Caspian Sea, at least the South Caspian Basin, is a remnant of the process of collapse the Tethys Ocean. Sometimes the Caspian Sea is considered as the rear of the Tethys basin. It is natural to assume that somewhere in the Caspian Sea should be located the remains paleozon subduction. The presence of such paleozon determined the development of the region in the geological past and, apparently, largely influenced by its modern structure, mode of seismicity and the location of mineral deposits.
The largest lake of the world - the Caspian Sea, located on the border of the two parts of the Eurasian continent, on the broad continental depression. Simultaneously, the Caspian Sea is the largest private natural reservoirs of our planet.
The oldest material on the Caspian Sea are found on assuriyskih pottery. According to these inscriptions, it was called the Southern Sea. The writings of Greek historian and geographer Hecataeus of Miletus (VI century BC) is referred to as the Caspian Sea and Hirkan. First ethnonym associated with the name of the tribe Caspi, who lived at that time in the south-western shores of the sea, on the territory of modern Azerbaijan. The second name comes from the name of the country Hirkan (in Persian - the country of wolves), whose people lived on the southeastern outskirts of the Caspian Sea. Two of these names uses in his writings and Herodotus (V century BC). Later, the ancient authors, along with these names, use ethnonyms Alban (linked to ethnonyms Albania), and Joshgun Hirkan. In ancient written monuments of the Caspian Sea is referred to as blue (taken from the Turks and Mongols), Khorezm (linked to the state of Khorezm, located in the lower valley of the Amu Darya River, whose territory reached to the Caspian Sea), Khvalynskoye, Derbent sea, etc.
People living around the sea and on his own called the Caspian Sea. For example, Russian - Khvalynskoye, Tatars - Ar Denise (White Sea), Turks - Kichik Denise (Small Sea), the Chinese - Si-Hai (West Sea). Ambassador of the Republic of Venice in Iran A. Contarini (1474-1477 gg.) Called it the Baku by sea. At home, the name of the Caspian Sea appeared in early XVI century. In other Caspian countries, the natural body of water known as follows: in Azerbaijan - Khazar danizi (Khazars - Turkic nation, lived in V - X centuries on the north-western shores of the Sea), Iran - Mazandaranskoe Sea, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan - the Caspian Sea. In general, at all times, various peoples have given the sea about 70 titles.
Waves during severe storms and gusts of north wind reaches a height of 10 - 12 meters. In the north, water is almost fresh, because of the influence of the Volga (1 - 2 promeli). In the south-east of the most saline water (14 promeli). The volume of water in the sea - 75 km2. Caspian Sea fed by the waters of large and small rivers: the Volga, Ural, Kura, Araks, Terek, Samur, Sulak, and others. 82% of water flowing into the sea comes from the Volga. Caspian Sea stretches from north to south over 1200 km with a width of 300 km. The average depth of the sea 180 meters, the highest in Lankaran depression - 1020 m; the lowest - in the north - 5 m. The coastline of the Caspian Sea (length 6000 km) from the Samur Absheron Peninsula to slightly indented. On the shores of Absheron, Mangyshlak and Krasnovodsk (Turkmen Bashi) are bays and coves. Further south, along the winding shoreline, located in Baku Bay, Kyzylagach Bay Shikhovo and Kura spit. Oil industry in Azerbaijan use the shallow waters of the Caspian Sea for oil and gas. Their hands created the only city on the water, a city on stilts, "Neft Dashlary" ( "Oil Rocks"). Most of the islands and peninsulas are located along the coastline and form two archipelagos: Absheron (east of Absheron peninsula) and Baku (on the south of the peninsula along the eastern shore of the sea). Absheron archipelago includes the islands of residential and other Artyom Island connected to the land automobile, pedestrian and rail causeway. Baku Archipelago combines sandy island, Boyuk Zira, Nargin (Dash Zira), Khara Zira, Gil, Karasu, Seng-Mugan (pig), Duva, Bull, Elk, etc. Most of the islands of education by the eruption of submarine mud volcanoes. Many of them produce oil and gas.
Unlike other sea water level in the Caspian Sea change frequently. The reason for this is the dry climate, which causes intense evaporation, the tectonic subsidence in the southern part of the sea, as well as the construction of large reservoirs on the rivers emptying into the sea, the extensive use of river water flowing into the Caspian Sea, for irrigation. The level of the Caspian Sea in 28 meters below sea level.
In the geological past, through the northern seas and Kuma-Manych depression relationship existed between the Caspian and Black Seas. As a result, the Caspian Sea are still preserved by the representatives of the fauna of the Mediterranean and North Seas. For example, the class of fish found salmon and beluga, from mammals - seals. The temperature of the upper layer of sea water varies from north to south. In the north, water temperature in winter is below 1 Â° C., and on the coast of Azerbaijan 5 - 8 Â° C. That is why the northern part of the winter sea ice cover, and sometimes large pieces have broken away during heavy storms drift to the ports of Absheron peninsula, threatening marine pipelines.
In summer the water temperature on the coast of Azerbaijan, an average of 24 - 25 Â° C. The Caspian Sea has an impact on the climate eastern part of the country where the winter climate - temperate, and in summer - cool.
I kind of wind regime of the Caspian Sea. Average annual wind speed varies from 2 to 5 m / sec. A hurricane has a wind direction from north-east to south-west. Under the influence of wind in the sea formed the circulating currents.
Diverse fauna of the Caspian Sea. In the bays of the Caspian coast winters many birds, and seagulls soar here all year round. Among the mammals are found in the sea seals that appear on the shores and islands of Azerbaijan in March-April and October-November. Food for birds and fish are various aquatic organisms, molluscs and crustaceans living in the sea. Fauna Kuma is closely connected with the life of the Caspian Sea. Some species of fish during the spawning swim from the sea to the upper reaches of the river Kuma.
The water of the Caspian Sea is the raw material for chemical industry and the various technical needs. Through the Caspian Sea had trade relations with Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran and other countries through the Volga-Baltic and Volga-Don Canal.
In the depths of the Caspian Sea discovered rich deposits of oil and combustible gas. The Caspian coast is very beautiful. On the eastern edge (shore Yalama) Shollar plain stretching to the Caspian, dense forest. Picturesque beaches Nabran coated with gold squealing and gravel. In this zone in the Caspian ducts Samur rivers, Gusarchaya and Kudialchaya. There are a number of hotels, tourist centers, discos, restaurants, Aquacenter and much more. Lankaran lowland forests and stretching to the shores of the sea. Subtropical landscape of the coast of the Caspian Sea in the summer months makes this an area in the resort area.
Perimeter, which spanned between Nabanyu and Lankaran lowlands, characterized by semi-desert climate. It combines the salt marshes, overgrown with wormwood and small halophytic shrubs, and spacious beaches, strewn with sand and seashells.
Fresh air, scenic view, favorable climatic conditions, light-yellow sand and a good infrastructure on the Caspian shore leave indelible impressions among residents and guests of the hospitable Azerbaijan.
Ecological problems of the Caspian Sea and their causes
At present, the ecological status of the Caspian Sea is in a very difficult position. In the shelf zone of the sea the situation is more difficult, in these territories formed in the dead zone. In some places the assessment of pollutants in the 10-20 times higher than the norm. However, they can be grouped as follows:
- pollutants are coming together with the rivers flowing into the Caspian Sea;
- pollution from urban and industrial sites located in the coastal zone;
- contamination in connection with offshore oil production and transportation;
- contamination of remaining under water sources in the coastal zone as a result of raising the level of the Caspian Sea.
Among these sources of pollution in the first place pollutants coming together with the rivers flowing into the Caspian Sea. For example, according to recent data, through rivers into the Caspian Sea annually receives 75 million tons of petroleum products, of which 95% falls on the Volga. In the absence among the Caspian states united agreement on the protection of the sea, there is poaching. Increased pollution and amount of evidence of poaching, plus the unemployed with the same force fish farms around the Caspian Sea have created the problem of reducing the number of many fish, especially sturgeon.
Problem level changes
The problem of the Caspian Sea level change is always created in the coastal area of socio-economic and environmental problems. For example, in cases of lower-level there is a necessity to rebuild all the hydro plants, including ports. Diminishes the area of the shelf zone, where there is a growing and flora and fauna of the Caspian Sea, creates obstacles to the transition of fish in the river for spawning. Negative changes are also in the hydrometeorological regime of this zone. In cases raising the level of socio-economic life of the coastal zone caused considerable
damage, deteriorating environmental conditions, are formed marshes, houses and land remain under water. For example, in 1978-1995 gg. by raising the level of 2,5 meters on the coastal zone of Azerbaijan there were "environmental refugees". From this sea-level rise Azerbaijan was damaged in the amount of $ 2 billion
Previously, the Caspian Sea lies on the borders of two states. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, around the Caspian Sea by five independent states, and, accordingly, a new geopolitical situation. In connection with the new conditions appeared the problem of the Caspian status. Because of the different positions of the Caspian countries, the problem still remains unsolved.
According to the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Caspian Sea - is an international inland lake and its water should be divided on the basis of the median. According to Kazakhstan, the Caspian Sea - is an international inland sea (in Russia about the same view) and its bottom should be divided into sectors along the median. To divide the water column, these two countries come out with different proposals. The Islamic Republic of Iran has previously offered option of joint ownership - ie, the condominium. Recently, the Iranian side proposes to divide the sea among the littoral countries on the basis of 20% of each State. This proposal is not scientific and political basis, this option has never been applied in world practice.
The Caspian Sea is located in a seismically active zone. In 1895 in Krasnovodsk earthquake measuring 8.2 magnitude on the Richter school (on a 12-point scale - 11-12). According to experts, intensive work on the exploration and oil production, accelerating the movement of tectonic plates, activates the seismic situation. In addition, the Caspian Sea is often observed the eruption of mud volcanoes. The greatest number of mud volcanoes located in the areas of the Baku archipelago. Here most of the islands and rivers of volcanic origin.
Fishing (sturgeon, bream, carp, perch, sprat), hunting seal. Deposits of oil and gas, mining of salt
Main ports: Astrakhan (Russia), Makhachkala (Russia), Baku (Azerbaijan), Lankaran (Azerbaijan), Aktau, Krasnovodsk (Turkmenistan), Bandar-e Anzali (Iran).