Disabilities may result from difficulties with mobility, vision, or hearing. Some disabilities affect a child's ability to learn, speak, or express emotions. Some problems are apparent at birth; others may not be discovered for months or years. Some children have a disability that is clearly apparent, but many have so called invisible disabilities that people might not notice right away. Children with learning disabilities or diabetes have invisible disabilities.

Learning Disability

A learning disability interferes with a child's ability to learn, listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do math. Children with a learning disability often have average or above average intelligence, but they achieve below their potential because of the difficulties they experience with learning. Learning disabilities result from disorders in the brain and central nervous system. Most learning disabilities are detected in children when standarized testing begins, between the ages of seven and twelve. Early diagnostic testing, followed by intervention using special teaching methods, is critical to their educational success.


Dyslexia , which prevents a child from understanding printed symbols in a normal way, is an example of a learning disorder.A child with dyslexia may be very intelligent but have trouble processing visual information. Letters and numbers may be reversed or absent, so children with dyslexia may have difficulty with reading, math, writing, and spelling. They may find it hard to understand directions and distinguish left from right.

Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

ADHD, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, is a behavior disorder that may be accompanied by learning disabilities. Children with ADHD often fail to finish what they start, don't seem to listen, and are easily distracted. They may always be active and have trouble staying in their seats. Some show signs of a lack of emotional control. Parents and teachers learn special teaching methods that may be useful with students with ADHD. Medication is often prescribed for many children with ADHD.

ADD, attention deficit disorder is similar to ADHD, but doesn't involve hyperactivity.

Physical Disabilities

Physical disabilities take a wide range of forms. They may range from mild to severe involvement. Some may be present at birth while others may develop over time or result from an injury. Normal daily routines that others take for granted can be difficult can be difficult or impossible for people with disabilities. Children with coordination problems may need assistance with bathing, eating, and getting ready for school. Some children with disabilities may need regular physical therapy or specialized therapy, All children with physical disabilities need patient and understanding caregivers who can help them learn how to perform basic activities and enjoy greater independence.

Mental Retardation

Children with mental retardation, also known as cognitive impairment or developmental disability, have below average intelligence and skills. Besides problems with thinking and learning, children with mental retardation may have difficulty paying attention, remembering, communicating, and interacting with others. Level of mental retardation range form mild to profound. There is no cure. Mental retardation may result from a genetic disorder, brain damage, poor prenatal care, or a variety of factors. In many cases, the cause is unknown. Children with this condition also have distinctive physical features. Down syndrome is an example of a genetic disorder resulting in varying degrees of mental retardation. Fetal alcohol syndrome, a condition that affects children born to some mothers who drank alcohol during pregnancy, is another disorder characterized by developmental delays, mental retardations, and physical abnormalities. Children with mental retardation have lifelong limitations, but with effective parenting and the right approach to their education, they can experience success. The goal is to help them become as independent as possible. Many are able to learn living and job skills that enable them to live alone or in a group home and to earn a living.

Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism is a disorder that affects a childs ability to communicate and interact with others. It is one of the most common developmental disorders, affecting about one child in 500.Autism affects about four times more boys than girls, although no one knows why.It usually appears during the first three years of life. Autism is one group of disorders collectively known as autism spectrum disorder ASD. While symptoms of autism and ASD vary widely, parents should seek help if their child doesn't babble or coo by one year old, is over attached to a single toy or object or becomes withdrawn and unresponsive. Children who are diagnosed early and who receive appropriate therapy do better in the long run.. About 10 percent of people with autism are called autistic savants. Some of these individuals have a compulsive interest in some narrow activity such as sports, Others develop an amazing ability in a certain area , such as music or mathematics. One common mathematical skill among savants is known as calendar calculation.Salvants with this ability can mentally calculate the dayof the week that any given date fell on, over a span of tens of thousands of years.

Speech and Language Impairments

Speech and language impairments interfere with a child's ability to communicate. A child with a speech disorder may have difficulty making certain speech sounds or modulating the volume or quality of the voice. A child with a language disorder may find it difficult to understand and use words correctly, making it difficult for the child to express ideas or follow directions. Some speech and language disorders are associated with hearing impairment, mental retardation and brain injury,In many cases the cause is not known. Because speech and language are so important to learning in general, it is important that children with these impairments receive help at an early age. Speech language pathologist can work with teachers and parents to help individual children get effective therapy.

Hearing and Visual Impairments

Some children with hearing impairments are totally deaf; others are hard of hearing, meaning that they can hear some speech with the help of a hearing aid. Some children with hearing impairments can speak, but others cannot.

Children with visual impairments may be totally blind or may have very low vision.