Pauley- Rhetoric and timeliness: An analysis of Lyndon B. Johnson’s voting rights address Response

            The predominate point of Pauley’s article was that President Johnson was often accused of speaking before he had thoroughly thought out his plans and making false promises by speaking too early. This article showed that Johnson’s voting rights address was good timing for most people and only poor timing for some. The article begins with giving a belief summary of how Johnson was generally portrayed by the public. Secondly it discussed the history on the voting rights proposals and campaign. Then it explained the negative responses toward the President and the United States resulting from Bloody Sunday. Next the article described the voting rights address and the responses it received both positive and negative.  Lastly it spoke of the part Johnson played in the Civil Rights Movement.

            I learned from this article that in communication, it is not necessarily what you say but when you say it. As the old saying goes “timing is everything”. This article clearly demonstrated timing is extremely important.

            In this article the criticism was conducted by focusing on a topic that most people believe to be true and giving examples that challenge that belief.  The author never said that everyone’s believes of President Johnson were wrong.  Pauley instead stated evidence that showed possibly there is reason to reevaluate the stereotype that was placed upon the President. I learned you can conduct a criticism without saying there are right or wrong answers, but instead show evidence that gives a reason to rethink the past conclusions.

Goldzwig and Dionisopoulos -John F. Kennedy's Civil Rights Discourse: The Evolution From 'Principled Bystander' to Public Advocate Response

            This article looked at the rhetoric used in speeches made by JFK in a domestic crisis. JFK shifted from moral and public appeals in his rhetoric and this article attempts to explain the reasoning for these shifts. First if a candidate has a weak political base, such as JFK, his legal appeals will intensify (p. 195). Second when legal problems involve moral issues the president is faced with “increased rhetorical difficulty” (p. 195). And lastly, if a situation brings on violence the President may be forced to change his rhetoric to a moral standpoint, which represents a loss of control.

            From this article I learned that discourse can change with the situation at hand. JFK changed his discourse with each situation he had to deal with. When a person is facing a problem where he is perceived to be handling it poorly, he will intensify his standpoint to prove himself. Moral issues will bring increased rhetorical problems. And when violence is involved in situations, a person will try to stop the violence from a moral standpoint.

            In this article, a negative idiosyncrasy of JKF was examined to explain why he had it.  I learned that when conducting a criticism, you can take a negative generalization and work towards explaining why this generalization exists. You can use previous research on these generalizations to support your claims, which provide a very convincing argument.

 Nomai and Dionisopoulos,- Framing the Cubas Narrative: The American Dream and the Capitalist Reality- Response

            The article is about comparing the American dream to Capitalism. The American dream is used as an excuse for behaviors by an American capitalist, Cubas, to further his own wealth or his American dream.  Cubas’ narrative was all about excluding details to show that the Cuban immigrants were going from rags to riches, when really the immigrants could have come to America for freedom without the help of Cubas. Cubas’ narrative shows that he is a do-gooder and he wants to provide everyone with an opportunity to achieve the American dream. The media brought to light that there are details that Cubas’ narrative leaves out showing he may not be everything he claims to be.

The article showed that through communication a situation can be skewed to mean whatever the teller wants it mean.  Cubas’ narrative showed he was trying to allow poor Cuban immigrants to achieve the American Dream.  In reality there were details left out of the entire situation to get people to believe Cubas’ was just doing good for the people.  Communication can be twisted to persuade people to look at a situation a specific way.

This article was formatted by giving a situation that people believe to be true, and then investigating it further to include more details to challenge the “truth” to the situation. I accumulated the idea that I could take a historical story and investigate it further to show details that might challenge the general outlook of the situation, from this article. 

Skow and Dionisopoulos-A Struggle to Contextualize Photographic Images: American Print Media and the Burning Monk Response

            Browne’s pictures of the “Burning Monk” are used to show a how a photograph can send political messages and represents what is going on in a specific place and time.  Browne’s photographs specifically brought to light the religious oppression in South Vietnam under the control of the President Diem with the help of the news media. The article begins with describing past works on photographs. It moves to the news medias reaction and reports to Browne’s photographs. Then it finishing with the of history of religious oppression in South Vietnam and how the pictures represent this oppression.             This article suggested that “the rhetorical meaning for a visual artifact is determined by the artifacts aesthetic form” and with the help of its audience’s construction, in this case the media. I learned that the media has the power to shape an incident into whatever they see fit. The media construed the photographs into meaning South Vietnam was going through a religious oppression and America believed them.

I learned that in criticism you can take a point that has already been discussed and put your own twist on it. Everyone had already examined that Browne’s photographs represented the religious oppression, but the fact that the media shaped it that way was never investigated. In the future I can use this technique in my own criticisms.