December 28, 1612

Galileo Galilei, who lived from 1564 to 1642, is considered to be the father of modern observational astronomy, as well as father of several other disciplines.  He was a physicist, astronomer, and philosopher, as well as being an astronomer.  He made improvements to the telescope and used his improved telescope to discover the four largest moons of Jupiter.

On December 28, 1612, Galileo observed Neptune, the solar system’s outermost planet.Galileo Galilei Saw Neptune But Does Not Get CreditCredit:,_1636.jpg He saw it again almost a month later on January 27, 1613.  At the time, he did not identify it as a planet.  Galileo placed it near Jupiter at the time, and thought that it was stationary.   He thought he had found another star in the sky.  Because he did not know it was a planet, he is not credited with the discovery of the planet.  It was officially discovered in 1846.


December 28, 1832

John C Calhoun, considered one of the three of the great statesman from the early half of the 1800s, served as Vice President under John Adams from 1825 to 1829.  HeJohn C Calhoun - Vice President from 1825-1832Credit: then served under Andrew Jackson from 1829 to 1832. 

Because of policy and personal differences with Jackson and the majority of the Senate as a whole, Calhoun felt he would be unable to win the presidency during the 1832 election.  He ran for Senate in South Carolina and won.  Calhoun resigned as Vice President on December 28, 1932, to take his Senate seat. 

This circumstances made John C Calhoun only one of two Vice Presidents to serve under two different Presidents, along with George Clinton.  He was also the first to resign from the office of Vice President, and only one of two to do so, along with Spiro Agnew.

December 28, 1945

The Pledge was written in 1892 by a Baptist Minister named Francis Bellamy. When written by Bellamy, he thought it could be used by multiple countries.  It originally read:

"I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands, one nation,
indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."

It was adopted by the United States on June 22, 1942 in the form of:

 "I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for
which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."

On December 28, 1945, The Pledge was officially given the name of “Pledge of Allegiance.  The words “under God” were added officially on June 14, 1954.

December 28, 2000

Montgomery Ward started as a mail order company in 1872.  The aim of the company was to bring goods to rural customers that they did not have access to.  Retailers did not like the competition, but the customers loved the new choices now available.  It opened its first retail store in 1926 and by the end of World War II was the third largest department store chain in the country. 

In 1944, the chain refused the introduction of unions, and ran into government trouble with that decision.  In 1955, there was an internal fight over control of the board, and this also brought government trouble because of proxy handling and tax issues.

During this time, the country was moving to the suburbs, but the company continued its policy of staying in the middle of town.  They lost market share to Sears and other rivals.  Although several different strategies were tried under several different management teams, the company never recovered. 

Their mail order business was closed in 1985, and the company announced the closing of their retail stores on December 28, 2000.  The closed stores quickly and by May 2001 all stores were gone and the company was finished.