Diabetes also known as DM from its full name Diabetes mellitus, is becoming an increasing health burden across the world, most especially in the US. With an ever increasing population that is obese and poor health coverage the trend may only worsen
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder or disease. The caused by a derangement in how our bodies utilize the food we eat for energy and growth. A major component of the food we eat is carbohydrate which is digested within the body and broken down to a simple sugar known as glucose. This glucose provides the energy that we use every day. There is an organ within our body that helps regulate the level of glucose we have in our blood that is available for energy production. This organ is known as the pancreas and it does it work by secreting a substance called insulin. This helps in the regulation of the blood level of the glucose in an automatic fashion.
When people have diabetes, it implies that something has gone wrong with this system. It is either that little or no insulin is being produced or the cells within the body are not responding to the insulin in an appropriate manner. Therefore the body cannot utilize the glucose that is available to it. Glucose begins to build up in the blood and subsequently it is filtered into the urine and passed out during urination.
There are basically three major types of diabetes mellitus. These are type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is also known as insulin dependent diabetes. This is because the person with type 1 diabetes would have to get extraneous injection of insulin to keep a healthy life. The reason for the extraneous injection of insulin is because in type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is not producing enough insulin for the body to use. A major cause of this is due to the body defense system recognizing the cells that produce insulin as the enemy so that they begin to attack and destroy those cell. This scenario is called an auto immune disease. About 10% of the diabetics in the US are of the Type 1 diabetes
Symptoms of Diabetes
The symptoms of type 1 diabetes can be of very sudden onset and pretty severe. The pivotal issues is what is known as diabetic ketoacidosis. This is due to an undue progression of untreated diabetes and an accumulation of certain substances in the blood stream. The symptom of the diabetic keto-acidosis includes nausea and vomiting. This may then lead to dehydration and an increase in serum potassium. If this progresses further, a diabetic coma may result and finally death
Symptoms of diabetes which should be watched out for include extreme fatigue. While we all get tired at various times, diabetes causes a more severe form of tiredness than normal. This is because of the reduced availability of energy to the cells in the body. Another symptom is significant weight loss. People with diabetes tend to loss a ot of weight within a short time. Increased thirst is yet another symptom. This is due to the fact that our brain cells interpret the compensation of the body to the high blood sugar by increasing the blood volume with more fluids, as being thirsty. There is also the issue of increased urination. Again this is a response mechanism form the body trying to get rid of as much sugar as possible from the blood stream. This urination is usually high in sugar content. The combination of increased urination and increased thirst can be pretty classical of diabetes. All this can result in dehydration. One of the most difficult issues to deal with in the diabetic is the poor wound healing. If a diabetics should sustain a wound, the healing process progress is normally very poor. It is slow and tends to reoccur at the slightest bruise.