Insulation is the material used for a home or building to keep the cool and warm air inside as preset by the thermostat. It is a fibrous material made in sheets batts cellulose that is blown in and fiberglass.
Manufactures create the high-density materials for the use of consumers. Several different types of insulation are available for different uses and different locations within the structures.
Generally the higher the density of the insulation the higher "R" factor the material has. The standard R rating used in most home is R19.
Some of the types of insulation include fiberglass batts used for spaces like the ceiling or attic as well as often placed in the walls of new construction. There is medium density insulation that is double fiberglass and high-density batts that are reported three times the insulation.
Most manufacturers use fiberglass as the key element in insulation that is actually two types of glass materials to increase the protection of the materials. The main issue with standard fiberglass insulation is it irritates the skin due to the small particles embedding in the skin causing a rash in some people. The other issue with fiberglass insulation is the dangers of inhaling the fine particles.
Cottage insulation is in either a batt or loose fill consisting of polyester nylon fibers and recycled cotton. They are flame and insect resistant. This type of insulation does not cause the usual skin irritations or respiratory problems but it is not available in many areas of the world at this point.
Mineral wool insulation consists of glass wool and fiberglass. The fiberglass is made of recycled glass. The wool is from rock wool from the igneous basalt and slag wool from the slag of steel mills.
The wools are stiff and brittle. The insulation is flame retardant and soundproof. The use of this type of insulation is in between the framing of the homes or structure. The cost of this type of insulation is relatively more expensive and more fragile than the other types of insulation.
All the insulation have an R rating that states the density of the materials and used for selection of the different areas of the structure since some areas do not require a higher R rating such as floors.