Both do it yourself type homeowners and professionals use specific drill-bits in cordless drills, electrically powered drills and hand operated drills. The type of drill-bit depends on what material you are boring through and how large it actually needs to be. Some drill-bits are specifically made for metal, wood, glass, plastics or masonry surfaces. Using the correct drill-bit for your project will determine a good or bad outcome. Manufacturers make drill-bits in a variety of sizes and strengths that you need to match to your project or job. Attempting to drill through a masonry surface with a bit made for wood will result in possible disaster. The drill-bit may snap which poses a danger to the user or freeze which may burn out your drill.
A twist bit is one of the types of drill-bit often used to bore holes. Twist bits, made of carbon steel are used to drill through all types of wood. To bore a hole in metal, you will need a twist bit made of high speed steel. When drilling through metals such as wrought iron or steel, the bit requires lubrication to create a hole. Use machine oil when drilling through metal to keep the bit lubricated and sharp.
Masonry drill-bits are made with a carbide tip or are diamond dusted that can pass through stone, brick, concrete and other masonry surfaces without becoming dull. The hard carbide tip is the key to successfully boring holes in masonry surfaces. Masonry drill-bits are specially designed by the manufacturer for slow speed drilling.
Brad Point drill-bit
Brad point drill-bits has a small, sharp point on the end of the bit so you can place the drill-bit directly on the mark through which you are drilling. Brad point bits are used to bore holes in wood with precision and accuracy. This type of drill-bit is perfect for tunneling a hole that a dowel or wood plug will fit into.
Glass and Ceramic Tile drill-bit
Glass, ceramic and porcelain drill-bits have a dome shaped top made of carbide or are diamond dusted. The carbide tip allows the drill to bore through without shattering the glass or ceramic. When drilling through glass, ceramic or porcelain, knead plumber’s putty in your hand until it becomes soft and pliable. Roll the putty back and forth between your palms to make a long snake. Shape the putty snake around the mark where you are drilling and press it down firmly meeting both ends to make a small well. Fill the well with water when drilling to keep the drill-bit cool. Keep the well filled during the entire drilling process.
Screw Pilot Hole Bit
Screw pilot hole drill-bits are available in a wide variety of diameters and lengths. They have a depth stop so you cannot drill into the substrate too deeply. Once you drill the pilot hole the bottom of the drill-bit creates a small recesses to countersink the screw so it will sit flush to the wood. Some screw pilot bits can be adjusted to the depth you want by turning a small screw and moving the collar up or down. The bits come in a wide variety of sizes to equal the size of the screw you are using for your project.
A countersinking drill-bit is a short angled bit that creates a small depression for a screw head to sit in neatly and flush. Countersinking drill-bits are used on wood, plastics and metals. Always use a lubricating oil when creating a countersinking divot on metal.Spade drill-bit
A spade bit is a flat bit with a point on the end. It is use on wood to shape a wide hole. Typically the holes created by a spade bit are not smooth. The bit leaves behind splintered wood and is used for rough finishing on wood surfaces.
Plastic and Acrylic drill-bit
As the name suggests, plastic and acrylic drill-bits are used for making holes in plastics and resins. These drill-bits come in a wide variety of sizes to accommodate your drilling needs.
Reamer bits are used to make holes in metal or wood larger. The end of the drill-bit is rounded so it won’t create a new hole but fit into an existing hole. As you move down the bit it becomes wider. Insert the end of the drill-bit into the hole, turn on the drill and as you apply pressure the bit make the hole wider.
An auger bit is used to bore a hole in wood. The unique design of the flutes keeps the drill from clogging with bits and pieces of wood. The auger bit is often used in a hand powered drill. Auger bits have great value when creating a mortise.
A step bits eliminates the need for several drill-bit changes to enlarge holes by making the bit with a point that can create up 13 different hole diameters in one drill-bit. It also removes the burs while drilling into the substrate to leave a smooth hole. Step bits can be used on wood, metal and plastics.
A hole saw is actually not a saw but a large drill-bit. Hole saws are made to cut large holes in metals, plastics and wood. Typically hole saws are used to cut the hole for a door knob. The round part of the hole saw has a sharp center point that holds the drill-bit in place when boring the hole.
Metal – drilling a hole in metal requires a bit that is made of high speed steel and requires lubrication.
Wood – boring a hole in wood requires a bit made of carbon steel.
Masonry Surfaces – drilling into a masonry or stone surface requires a carbide tipped drill-bit or a diamond dusted bit.
Glass, Ceramic and Porcelain – making holes in glass, ceramic and porcelain requires a carbide tipped drill-bit or diamond dusted and water while drilling to keep the bit cool.