According to Willy Brandt, development is not only the material prosperity but something towards peace, security, justice, equality and accessibility over resources, social, cultural, political, economic decision making. Development can also be defined as a positive change in the society, economy and environment.

As mentioned above, economic growth alone cannot be considered as development. Social as well as environmental aspects should also be considered to occur development. If a country is strong in economic sectors but it cannot maintain peace and security to its citizen then we cannot call this sort of state a development. Similarly an economically powerful country having problems on ecological and environmental aspects can have negative impacts on its citizen and it cannot also be considered as a development because development is simply happiness in one’s mind.

Today Sustainability is considered as a crucial part in the course of development. According to this concept the development should occur by integrating both social and ecological factors to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It is possible only by the mutual cooperation among various organizations and civil society. These concepts and approaches frame the basic elements of development. It helps us understand ourselves and our world. The problems we face are complex and serious—and we can't address them in the same way we created them. But we can address them. These days various international agencies working in the field of development and policy makers are focusing on these concepts.

The sustainability of the ecosystem is essential for responding to the human and ecological needs which is possible only through socially directed investments nurtured by the family, neighborhood, community, NGOs and the civil society because they encourage local self-reliance with goods and services produced locally from resources for local consumption.         

                                                                                 - Bongratz and dahal, development studies


Over the last few years civil society forces, particularly the NGOs, the UN development agencies, self-help promotion institutions, cooperatives, consumer associations, and the western funding agencies have started to implement and --later--to support development projects and programs based on these concepts.

                                                                                  - Bongratz and dahal, development studies



Development not only implies the expansion of few aspects likes economy but it’s also a prosperity and advancement of society and its resources. Various conference and meetings based on development had made policies and rules based on these concepts.

The outcome of the Earth Summit, World conference on child, population and development, indigenous people, human rights, women, Human Settlement(Habitat II), and social development organized by the UN has provided an awareness that development is not only the growth of  few parts but also the society as a whole.

                                                                                   - Bongratz and dahal, development studies

The new economic order is based on the concept to remove a wide gap between developed and developing countries which incorporate social development and economic development for the peace and security.

The United Nations pledged itself to work urgently for the establishment of a new international economic order based on equity, sovereign equality, common interest and cooperation among all states, irrespective of their economic and social systems, which shall correct inequalities and redress existing injustices, make it possible to eliminate the widening gap between the developed and developing countries and ensure steadily accelerating economic and social development and peace and justice for present and future generations.

                                                                                   -A.P. Thrilwall, growth and development

Development, on the other hand is defined by Goulet as self-sustenance, self-esteem and freedom. No country will be developed unless its citizens are self-sustained, self esteemed and free.

Goulet(1971), distinguishes three basic components or core values in this wider meaning of development, which he calls life-sustenance, self-esteem and freedom. Life sustenance is concerned with the provision of basic needs. No country cannot be regarded as a developed country if its citizens are deprived from basic needs. Self-esteem is concerned with the feeling of self-respect and interdependence. Similarly freedom refers to freedom from the three evils of ‘want, ignorance and squalor’ so that people are more able to determine their own destiny.

                                                                                          -A.P. Thrilwall, growth and development

                                                                                      Sushil Lamichhane