Effects of Tourism
Benefits of Tourism
Numerous benefits exist both for the tourist and also the host destination. It is a good substitute for preventing destructive companies to make more income, through national or private means.
The tourism industry generates lots of jobs in many areas as it involves many different fields. Some areas related to tourism include restaurants, tour companies, souvenir shops, hotels, service stations, rentals including car and sports equipment rentals and so on. All these create employment in different levels for people in a certain society.
In some places, the development of tourism gives the local people a good chance for educational and economic growth, which would not be obtainable otherwise. Additionally, it permits both tourists and the locals to experience and enjoy different cultures and expands their knowledge too.
Tourism can generate a good income and if this is utilized well, it will be a huge benefit to the host country and also serve the local societies. This income can be used for improving education, infrastructure and to support the efforts for conservation and also to increase a meaningfully responsible tourism.
Harmful Impacts of Tourism
Even though tourism is very helpful, and financially helps the host destination, there are many disadvantages too such as the unavoidability of cultural and environmental degradation. These impacts have a very close link to each other, but they will be tackled individually.
Environmental Impacts of Tourism
There are different sides to tourism as people prefer many varieties of holidays. Some travelers prefer backpacking in some far away forest with just the minimum requirements and some others may prefer a beach side plush resort with all the comforts which he enjoys in his own home.
The launch of the ‘mega resort’ is considered as the most cost-effective and environmentally damaging accompaniments to the tourism industry. Resorts which are owned by large companies seldom give their profits to local communities on which they rely upon and survive.
These large resorts do not donate to the local communities in any manner and are seldom eco friendly and thus does not appeal to the environmentally aware customers.
Erosion is caused by heavy construction as the work involving development leads to pollution, especially in tropical climates. Tourism causes a lot of pollution in the form of oil leakages, the heavy machines used to build hotels and resorts, rental car exhausts, airport construction and commercial airplanes etc. (Ref. McLaren, 1998).
After the construction is over, tourists use a large amount of natural resources and make an equally large quantity of wastage. Tourists cause a sudden rise in population which leads to over use of natural resources and over production of wastage. (Ref. McLaren, 1998). This leads to water shortage, shortage of power and also misuse of local waters by over fishing and also is a permanent danger to the tourist communities. This can be seen in the form of air and water pollution, and the overflowing sewage systems. Hence, many tourist places suffer loss of drinking water and the fear of disease and infection in the local communities.
Local infrastructure suffers due to the heavy traffic caused from cars and local tour vehicles. This is a big disadvantage especially in developing nations and in cases where the tourist owned corporations shares their profits only with their own nations, the local communities suffer in turn and have to pay a hefty bill for restoring the losses.
Cultural Impacts of Tourism
Tourism causes a lot of environmental impacts on the host countries. Local business owners cannot compete with big corporations as land development causes a rise in land prices which cannot be purchased by the locals.
Even a careful traveler can cause disease and infection to a host country. An estimated ninety percent of Native Americans died due to disease exposure which was brought by the Europeans. (Ref. McLaren, 1998). Many travel places are not advanced medically as compared to developed countries.
Tourists are often mindless and contribute to undermining of the social standards of the local communities by offending their sentiments through demeaning acts of behavior. This shows that they disrespect the local culture while making use of the local amenities which are not obtainable to them. These disrespect activities cause some tension between the tourists and the local people. This further leads to an increase in criminal activities through small thefts, pick pocketing and even sexual attacks.
Economic Impacts of Tourism
A constant demand for the best tourism facilities leads to rise in prices, which includes property and land values. Over-investment in accommodation stock is caused by a booming atmosphere of a tourist destination and this leads to further decrease in prices of some buildings.
An increase in import necessities is caused by the ever-increasing population of tourists. Some tourists demand their stay to be highly comfortable as they were at home while they holiday abroad. They order food and drinks from their home country and this can inflict added expenditures on the host countries by importing them for reselling it to the tourists. This is particularly noticed in small island markets which do not have what the tourists wish such as drinks, food and even luxurious items like cameras, expensive jewelery and photographic equipments and so on.