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Elements and the Periodic Table

By Edited Nov 13, 2013 0 0

The Elements

Early man used lead, gold, copper, silver and mercury since the early times. Known for their properties, these became valuable. Henning Brand recognized phosphorus as an element in 1649. This was the first new matter recognized as an element. The list of known elements in 1869 was 63. Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier authored what could be the first chemistry book in 1789. He listed elements, some of which, like light, weren’t elements. He broke them down into metals and non-metals.

The Periodic Table of Elements

In 1862,  Alexandre-Emile Béguyer de Chancourtois published the telluric hurix which was elements on periodic table with the elements arranged by atomic weight. He didn’t make a diagram, and included compounds that weren’t elements.

In 1863, John Newlands attempted to put elements on a periodic table. He classified the 56 elements into 11 groups. Newlands used a multiple of eight to group elements with similar properties. Every eighth element seemed to exhibit similar properties. Newlands referred to this as the Law of Octaves because of the elements similarity to musical scales. His contemporaries didn’t accept the idea at the time, but later scientists did.

Modern Periodic Table

Periodic table.(67382)

Periodic Elements Table

As with other scientific discoveries, such as Wallace and Darwin working on evolution independently at the same time, two men were independently developing ideas to put elements in periodic table. Dmitri Mendeleev published On the Relationship of the Properties of the Elements to Their Atomic Weights in 1869 while Lothar Meyer published his in 1870. Meyer’s table of elements was in a textbook.

Mendeleev’s arrangement was to arrange elements on the periodic table with the lightest atomic mass, hydrogen with one, and put the next heaviest to it’s right. Mendeleev then arranged elements on periodic table so each column’s elements had similar properties. He left open spaces for elements that were discovered later. He designed the chart by putting each element on a card, with its name and atomic weight, and arranged them like a solitaire game.

The Periodic Table of Elements

In 1862,  Alexandre-Emile Béguyer de Chancourtois published the telluric hurix which was elements on periodic table with the elements arranged by atomic weight. He didn’t make a diagram, and included compounds that weren’t elements.

In 1863, John Newlands attempted to put elements on a periodic table. He classified the 56 elements into 11 groups. Newlands used a multiple of eight to group elements with similar properties. Every eighth element seemed to exhibit similar properties. Newlands referred to this as the Law of Octaves because of the elements similarity to musical scales. His contemporaries didn’t accept the idea at the time, but later scientists did. The Law of Octaves didn't work for elements with a higher atomic weight than calcium, Ca. The nobel gasses, such as argon and helium, didn't fit into this pattern. The concept was helpful in organizing elements, even though its accruacy was limited.

Periodic Elements Table

As with other scientific discoveries, such as Wallace and Darwin working on evolution independently at the same time, two men were independently developing ideas to put elements in periodic table. Dmitri Mendeleev published On the Relationship of the Properties of the Elements to Their Atomic Weights in 1869 while Lothar Meyer published his in 1870. Meyer’s table of elements was in a textbook.

Mendeleev’s arrangement was to arrange elements on the periodic table with the lightest atomic mass, hydrogen with one, and put the next heaviest to it’s right. Mendeleev then arranged elements on periodic table so each column’s elements had similar properties. He left open spaces for elements that were discovered later. He designed the chart by putting each element on a card, with its name and atomic weight, and arranged them like a solitaire game.

Dmitri Mendeleev

Mendeleev didn’t get the Nobel Prize for his periodic elements table. He missed the prize by one vote. His genius covered many areas. He wrote books on astronomy, physics, chemistry, geology, and his interests covered many areas.  Some were in print until the mid-twentieth century. He was a mediocre student, because he didn’t like foreign languages.  Greek and Latin were important subjects at the time. He was good in science and mathematics and shone when he studied in those areas.

The Modern Periodic Elements Table

Mendeleev’s s table included all the necessary information. Scientists found new elements and determined their weight, then put them in the proper place on the table. The chart was regrouped with horizontal rows into periods and groups of elements with similar properties were put into vertical rows. Glen Seborg discovered synthetic elements, and added these new elements as a block on the bottom of the periodic table. The block between 56 and 72 and between 88 and 104 is in this group.

The periodic elements table remains the same, but colors and groupings have been modified for geology, physics, inorganic and organic chemistry. Mendeleev's table has been put into many different configurations, but the information and purpose remains the same.

 The Periodic Table and Elements in the Popular Culture 

Tom Lehrer even made a song called The Elements in 1959. At the time some students were required to memorize it, and it still shows up on occasion. The song was performed during the Ig Nobel Award show at Harvard University in 2011. The Ig Nobel award was a periodic table table table.

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