While studying the subject of feminism I came across the following views.
The word feminism is an ambiguous term. Views vary from person to person; the most reliable description was, as given by the Utopian Socialist Charles Fourier during the 19th century, the equal rights of women. Feminist philosophy is characterized by excessive inherent controversies. Today, it would be politically correct to discuss it in terms of ‘feminisms’ instead of ‘feminism.’ Nevertheless, the general idea that all feminists agree in common, however, is that women are positioned in a substandard level in relation to their male counterparts in the society and also this hierarchy is founded on gender. Moreover, in spite of the fact that this classification is legitimized by reason of natural distinctions between men and women, feminists are of opinion that in reality, this hierarchy is regimented by way of socio-cultural and economic power structures having remote connection with biological dissimilarities between the sexes.
The topic is crucial to feminist examination and corresponds to a structure of male ascendency.
Views of Kate Millet
A prominent radical feminist, Kate Millet, while scrutinizing the phrase in 1970s, borrowed from sociologist Max Weber’s idea of domination, expressing that from times immemorial the association between the sexes has lingered around subjugation and exploitation amidst which men have practiced supremacy via two ways – by means of social authority and economic force. The significance is laid on patriarchy as an arrangement, to ascertain that men’s authority over women is not an isolated occurrence, rather a reflection of a timeless mechanism. She wrote, “However muted its present appearance may be, sexual domination obtains nevertheless as perhaps the most pervasive ideology of our culture and provides its most fundamental concept of power.”
Views of Gerda Lerner
The historical writer Gerda Lerner explains patriarchy accordingly: “the manifestation and institutionalization of male dominance over women and children in the family and the extension of male dominance over women in society in general…It implies that men hold power in all the important institutions in society and that women are deprived access to such power.” This is not equivalent to a condition that every individual man is at all times elevated in a superior rank and that every individual woman is at all times degraded in a subsidiary or inferior rank. It indicates a situation, that subservient to patriarchy, the ideology furnishes that men are advanced than women; that women are the possessions of men and that women should be restrained by men. She continues, “What are patriarchal values? Simply, the assumption that the fact of biological sex differences implies a God-given or at least a "natural" separation of human activities by sex, and the further assumption that this leads to a "natural" dominance of male over female.”