Overview of foot muscle anatomy
The foot muscle anatomy consists of a lot of muscles. The foot muscle anatomy is responsible for foot movements like adduction, abduction, flexion and extension; it also helps to support the weight of the trunk and legs. They are divided into the following groups:
- lateral and
This is the first group of muscles that make up the foot muscle anatomy.
Abductor halluces: it originates from the medial process of calcaneal tuberosity, flexor retinaculum, plantar aponeurosis and medial intermuscular septum. It inserts in the medial aspect of base of proximal phalanx of hallux. It flexes the big toe (primary action) and assists in abduction of big toe
Flexor hallucis brevis: it originates from the medial aspect of the cuboid and lateral cuneiform and inserts into the medial aspect of base of proximal phalanx of hallux and lateral aspect of base of proximal phalanx of hallux. It flexes hallux at MTP.
Adductor halluces: oblique head originates from base of 2nd-4th metatarsals and long plantar ligament. Transverse head originates from deep transverse metatarsal ligament and plantar ligaments at MTP joints. It inserts in lateral aspect of base of proximal phalanx of hallux, adducts the hallux at MTP and flexes hallux at MTP
This is the second group of muscles that make up the foot muscle anatomy.
Flexor digitorum brevis: originates from medial process of calcaneal tuberosity, plantar aponeurosis. Inserts on both sides of the bases of the middle phalanx of rays 2-5 • (each of the 4 tendons splits forming tunnel for FDL). It flexes toes 2-5
Quadratus plantae: medial head originates from medial calcaneus; lateral head originates from lateral calcaneus and long plantar ligament. It inserts in lateral margin of tendon of flexor digitorum longus (FDL). It may send slips into the distal tendons. It assists FDL in flexing the distal phalanxes of 2nd-5th toes and corrects FDL from pulling toes medially.
Lumbricals: originates from tendons of FDL and inserts in extensor tendons of EDL on dorsal foot. It flexes proximal phalanges at MTP and extends middle and distal phalanges at IP.
Plantar interossei (3 muscles): originates from medial aspect of 3rd-5th metatarsals (each muscle has a single head) and inserts in medial aspect of base of proximal phalanx of the same ray (of 3rd-5th rays). They adduct toes 3-5 and flex toes 3-5
Dorsal interossei (4 muscles): originate from both metatarsals between which they lie and insert into the base of proximal phalanx closest to the axis of the foot (2nd ray). They abduct toes 2-4 and flex toes 2-4 at MTP
This is the third group of muscles that make up the foot muscle anatomy.
Abductor digiti minimi: lateral & medial processes of the calcaneal tuberosity, plantar aponeurosis, lateral intermuscular septum, inserts in lateral aspect of base of proximal phalanx of 5th ray, abducts 5th toe and aids in flexing
Abductor ossis metatarsi quinti: originates from fibers of abductor digiti minimi, inserts into the 5th metatarsal and abducts the 5th ray.
Flexor digiti minimi brevis: originates from base of 5th metatarsal 2.digital sheath of peroneus longus, inserts in lateral aspect of base of proximal phalanx of 5th ray and flexes the 5th toe at MTP
Opponens digiti minimi brevis: opposes the digiti minimi.
Dorsal foot muscles
This is the fourth group of muscles that make up the foot muscle anatomy.
Extensor hallucis brevis: comes from the top, lateral region of the calcaneus and the bottom of the extensor retinaculum. This msucles enters through the base of proximal phalanx of hallux and extends the big toe.
Extensor digitorum brevis: originates from upper anterolateral calcaneus and inferior extensor retinaculum, inserts in middle & distal phalanges of 2nd-4th rays (via EDL) and extends 2nd-4th rays.
All these muscles that make up the foot muscle anatomy get their blood supply from branches of the anterior and posterior tibial arteries. Generally, the anatomy of the foot muscles is complex.