Bones of the foot
- Tarsal bones
- Metatarsal bones
- Phalanges (or digits of the foot)
The tarsal bones make up a very important group of the foot bone anatomy and are made up of six bones. These bones include the lateral cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, medial cuneiform, navicular bone, cuboid bone, talus, calcaneus or heel bone. Only one bone articulates with the tibia and fibula superiorly. This bone is the talus; the other bones except calcaneus articulate with the metatarsals anteriorly. The calcaneus is the biggest bone of the foot anatomy. The tarsal bones (when together) form the arch of the foot. All of the tarsal bones together make up the tarsus which the joint formed by them, the tibia and fibula is commonly known as the ankle. It is important to know the structure of the calcaneus because it is the bone which is usually fractured when a person falls from a height and lands on his feet.
The Metatarsal Bones
This group of foot bone anatomy consists of five long bones. They do not have specific names like the tarsal bones but they are numbered from one side to another. The numbering is from the medial side; the first one being the big toe. They function is to connect the bones in the anterior (the phalanges) and the bones posterior to them (the tarsal bones). They are like the metacarpals in the hand. The 1st bone in this group (big toe) articulates with medial cuneiform bone and also slightly with the intermediate cuneiform bone. The 2nd metatarsal bone articulates with the lateral, intermediate and lateral cuneiform bones. The 3rd metatarsal bone articulates with the lateral cuneiform bone. The 4th metatarsal bone articulates with the lateral cuneiform bone and also the cuboid bone (one of the tarsal bones). The 5th articulates with only the cuboid bone.
The bones that make up the foot bone anatomy have different functions. Some of them support the human skeleton and help in movement while others do the same and also form the shape of the foot.