Links between Globalization and Terrorism


            Globalization has been the defining feature of the late twentieth century. Thomas Friedman defines globalization as an ongoing process that “is the inexorable integration of markets, nation-states and technologies to a degree never witnessed before—in a way that is enabling individuals, corporations and nation-states to reach around the world farther, faster, deeper and cheaper than every before." Likewise, Noam Chompsky expresses globalization as “just international integration.”Regardless of one’s exact definition, globalization has lead to increased transactions across national borders, inter-connected financial markets and large-scale international migration. “Everyday, trillions of dollars flow through the World’s foreign exchange markets, which now exceeds $1.5 trillion.”The world economy has become more integrated than every before and this movement of trade, money and people is what has been the driving force. Throughout the 1990’s, globalization paved the way for many positive phenomenon in the world. This international integration was a major proponent to end poverty, child mortality, totalitarianism, unemployment, war, genocide, environmental catastrophes, low wages, poor working conditions and gender inequality. After the world trade center attack on September 11th and the train bombings in Spain, globalization may be revealing its darker side and pose a greater threat to the security of the world than was once perceived. This threat is due in large part to the fact that today; terrorists have become global actors and are using a combination of the fundamental principles of globalization like technological advances, loosening barriers, international trade, interchangeable currencies and the growing vulnerability of the integrated world to their advantage.  

            States cannot commit terrorism. Terrorism is the intentional, premeditated use of violent force against civilians perpetrated by a small group with political motivation. There is a lack of certainty of being attacked, where civilians at home, work or on a bus are not immune from attack. The Academic consensus definition is:

“An anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby – in contrast to assassination – the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from the target population, and serve as message generators. Threat- and violence-based communication processes between terrorist (organization), (imperiled) victims, and main targets are used to manipulate the main target (audience(s)), turning it into a target of terror, a target of demands, or a target of attention, depending on whether intimidation, coercion or propaganda is primarily sought.”[7]


Terrorism, like pornography, can often be difficult to define, but can be easily identified when it is seen.

            In our global society, both Globalization and Terrorism have become intertwined, often feeding off one another in a symbiotic relationship. While all aspects of society, both good and bad are becoming integrated, so are the risks and responsibilities of the world. “Globalization, the driving force behind the expansion of the world economy, has become a serious threat to US security. In a bleak assessment of the threats facing the US, the Senate intelligence committee was told that nuclear proliferation, failing economies, rising anti-Americanism and terrorists recruiting pose grave dangers.” [8] Terrorists have created a serious threat to international security through their relentless pursuit of transnational crimes such as illicit trafficking of narcotic drugs, money laundering and arms smuggling.[9] These crimes are perpetrated on a global scale to raise money for more violent terrorist acts. "In the global campaign against terrorism, no country has the luxury of remaining on the sidelines. There are no sidelines. Terrorists respect no limits, geographic or moral. The frontlines are everywhere and the stakes are high." [10]  Terrorism is truly a preeminent security challenge to the era.

            Some argues that economic globalization does not encompass everyone and therefore has caused more tension in the world.[11] “Global markets offer greater opportunity for people to tap into more and larger markets around the world. It means that they can have access to more capital flows, technology, cheaper imports, and larger export markets. But markets do not necessarily ensure that the benefits of increased efficiency are shared by all. Countries must be prepared to embrace the policies needed, and in the case of the poorest countries may need the support of the international community as they do so.”[12] The difference between the upper one fifth of the world’s population and the lower one fifth is mind boggling. The growth consumption shows a trend that globalization is neglecting almost altogether the poorest 20% of the world’s people.[13] According to the United Nations reports in 2004, over one billion people are deprived of basic consumption needs like water, housing, health services, education, transportation and telecommunications.[14] Even more staggering is the inequality of financial capital. As a result of globalization, financial capital can now move with just the click of a mouse, and business can more or less up and move in a shorter amount of time. However, labor is not as fluid and does not move as easily, and when it does, it is often at the expense of the state.[15]

            Economically, many countries fall behind the herd of more affluent states and companies, creating resentment and retaliation. “Global economic restructuring has led not only to disruption in less developed or developing economies, it has also been a factor in unemployment, wage decline or job insecurity in dominant market economies.” [16] While, “Market forces and openness have combined to increase the information, energy and healthcare…ironically such systems become more vulnerable and fragile as they become more complex and efficient. The result is that progress makes the infrastructure vulnerable to local disruptions which could lead to widespread or catastrophic failures.”[17] In addition, corporate driven global trade practices, “inequality and poverty and also unrestricted trade liberalization create conditions for breeding grounds for terrorism.”[18] Economic Inequality often creates political stability which can often lead to a failed state.[19] States “that generally cannot provide security for their citizens, or their territory, and that are corrupt and illegitimate in the eyes of their citizens” are considered failed. [20]

            Failed States harbor terrorists and provide a safe haven for their criminal activities.[21] A surge in poverty combined with a weak government and no rule of law often leads to a rise in criminal activity. “Globalization often exacerbates local and regional tensions, increases the prospects and capabilities for conflict and empowers those who would do us harm.” [22] Terrorists can easily prey on economically unstable nations and victimize the populations to their profit. Transnational crime groups like al Qaeda have emerged out of the absence of civil society and out of insurgency and conflict in Afghanistan. [23]

“Those who lead the cells and networks that hollow out failing states focus with laser like intensity on exploiting opportunity and creating facts on the ground. Whether loosely arrayed in symbiotic relations or more closely coordinated by a central brain, they find space to operate in the vacuums left by a declining transitional state—and they eat what they kill.” [24]

            In Afghanistan, self-interested rulers of the Taliban succeeded in corrupting the central organs of the government and pushed the country into an economic disaster.[25] As a result, Afghanistan lost legitimacy in the world and lost foreign support. These “states with shallow domestic legitimacy tend to fail when they lose foreign support…failure is accelerated when the major actors in the international system abandon local regimes no longer deemed acceptable or convenient partners. Afghanistan exemplifies how an already war-torn polity failed after the strategic disengagement of Moscow and Washington in the early 1990’s, ending up as a haven for terrorists.”[26]                                        While globalization can be in part attributed to political stability, the link between terrorism and globalization is more manifest in International trade and movement. Part of the backbone of globalization is cross-border connectivity.[27] This includes porous borders, which serve to accelerate the flow of goods while at the same time increase the level of legal and illegal immigration—both legal and illegal. [28]International trade and movement are essential elements that enable terrorist organizations to function globally with relative ease. “On an average day, over one million people enter the United States legally and thousands more enter illegally.” [29]  Border connectivity has reached a dangerous crossroad, where,

“cheap air transport, the effects of decolonization and a population explosion in the poorer parts of the world have combined to create an unprecedented movement of humanity from one nation to another. Travel and emigration have broadened the mind and brought unparalleled opportunities to countless families. But they have also helped create havens for those seduced by the romance of terrorism.” [30]

The large scale movement of people and fewer regulations on national border control, while a defining feature of our global world has reached dangerous heights and jeopardizing national security. The threat is real and “the events of September 11, 2001 have underscored the urgent need to move quickly on defining immigration as a valid transatlantic security issue.” [31]                                                The easier passage across borders makes terrorist network funding and logistical networks less dependant on state sponsors. Bin Laden is “a global insurgent” and his network is global in its very organization and undertakings.[32] The al Qaeda network travels widely, showing no particular tie to a geographical location.  The Sudan and Afghanistan are thousands of miles apart, and Bin Laden himself is Saudi.  While the original organization was created around bin Laden as a symbolic figure and has an epicenter in Afghanistan, “it functions in more than 60 countries, and is spread all over the world”[33], taking full advantage of loose border controls. Al Qaeda “ functions as a network of complex connections embedded in countries but linked between and across societies”[34] The organization has been linked to terrorist attacks in countries including Indonesia, Kenya, Tanzania, the Philippines, the United States, and Yemen.[35] In addition, Al Qaeda appears to operate out of many other countries, including, besides Afghanistan, Canada, Germany, Sudan, and Saudi Arabia. Al Qaeda can be therefore considered a de-territorialized actor.[36]                                                               Globalization has made a marriage of convenience between organized crime groups and terrorist factions. Today, Terrorist organizations “operate like transnational corporations, with strong organizational skills and entrepreneurial style. They are driven by huge rewards and are not confined by legal or moral conventions” [37] and once again, globalization gives organized criminals and terrorists the tools to become more globalized, sophisticated, adaptable and resilient. Money is the terrorist lifeline and terrorist networks need large amounts of funding to support their cause. We saw that” the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks were financed with a $500,000 bankroll” [38] Since these criminals can’t necessarily walk out of a bank with the kind of cash flow necessary for funding; they “rely on a variety of sources for funding and logistical support, including self-financing criminal activities such as kidnapping, narcotics, and petty crimes. Their networks of support include both front organizations and legitimate business and non-government organizations.” [39] Terrorist groups are commonly based on ideological or religious motives and lack a specific political or nationalistic agenda. They, therefore, have little need for a hierarchal structure and instead, “rely on loose affiliations with like minded groups from a variety of countries to support their common cause.” [40] One of the “most significant threats to regional security and stability are the developing sophistication and globalization of organized crime groups, which are likely to increase their cooperation in areas of mutual interest; …the increase and diversification in regional drug production, abuse and trafficking; and the likelihood that insurgency groups in the region are likely to become more dependent on crime- particularly drug production and trafficking - to finance their political campaigns.”[41]                    Drug trafficking has been clearly linked to terrorist activity and globalization has played a significant role. “Narcotics dealers have used globalization to their advantage by globalizing their own markets making it easier to conduct business on an international level.  The Russian Narco-business, the Eastern European Drug racket, the Columbian connection and the Afghanistan heroin drug lords have all benefited from globalization.” [42] International terrorist organizations like Al Qaeda have been financed by money made in the international drug market [43] and “militants linked to Al Qaeda (have) also established connections with Bosnian organized crime figures. The officials said Al Qaeda and the Taliban found a route for the trafficking of heroin from Afghanistan into Europe through the Balkans.” [44] The CIA reports “underground networks frequently cross into gangsterism. One official cites `ample evidence' that Bin Laden's group uses profits from the drug trade to finance its campaign." [45]

“Osama bin Laden's al Qaeda network has become deeply involved in international drug trafficking, using the money to buy arms and, possibly, radioactive material for use in a so-called "dirty" nuclear bomb, senior U.S. officials say…l Qaeda has a presence in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, where drugs are a currency. It has dealings with nations in Southeast Asia, such as Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Drugs are a currency that fuels terrorist groups everywhere." [46]

            Once terrorist have amassed huge sums of money through illegal activity, money laundering has become the most efficient way for terrorists to legitimize the illegally obtained money, moving money from the illegitimate to the legitimate economy. Manipulating global banking and Money laundering have all become useful tools to transfer and hide funds. Money laundering has emerged on a massive international scale with the globalization of the world economy and the internationalization of organized crime. “Money laundering is a $1 trillion a year global problem which allows organized crime and drug trafficking to flourish and can threaten entire economies” [47] Money earned in one region can, with increasing facility, be transferred to another part of the world, preventing its eventual recovery by law enforcement. “As the international financial system has expanded, so too have financial abuses -- money laundering, tax evasion, and rogue banking. Globalization is now changing the nature of these age-old problems, threatening to undermine U.S. diplomatic, economic, and even strategic interests.”[48] With the globalization of organized crime activity, money is earned in all regions of the world and must be collected, consolidated and moved. This growth has been facilitated by new technologies, the globalization of trade and movement of people and the declining significance of borders. A large number of professionals, including lawyers, accountants and bankers, have emerged to assist terrorists with large amounts of money at their disposal.[49] This criminal clientele is then able to launder “money into readily movable assets, moving cash outside the jurisdiction to invest it in a business, and trading at inflated prices to expatriate funds…where, cash deposited in a checking account can be withdrawn worldwide with debit cards”[50] 

            Economic globalization has been on the rise. From 1960 to 1980, global imports have risen from $330 billion to $2,050 billion. In 1990, these imports reached $3,500 billion. [51]The expansion of the globalized economy, global financial markets, offshore banks and the increasing technology surrounding wire transfer businesses, currency exchange and the high volume of legal funds circulating around the world enable this money to almost disappear. Universally exchangeable currencies are a byproduct of economic globalization and makes for the passage of money from one nation to another virtually seamless.  Major currencies like the dollar, the deutschemark and the yen “are nearly universally exchangeable, smoothing the transition from illicit profits in one part of the world to apparently legitimate investment elsewhere. [52]

Organized criminals can exploit “the differential regulatory regimes”[53] and move

 “money across jurisdictions rapidly in order to hinder detection by taking advantage of the discrepancies between country based regulatory systems. They seek out locales that are less regulated with respect to international anti-money laundering laws. These havens, frequently offshore banking centers, provide both banking and corporate secrecy. They also provide secrecy for the trusts, which are used to hide large-scale assets that are often illegally diverted from the companies controlled by organized crime groups.” [54]


The Globalization of financial-services “means that money placed in a bank branch in a less regulated jurisdiction is easily transferred internally within the organization to a branch in a more regulated jurisdiction.”[55] The Internet is used to speed up global communication of laundering and can be used as an “updated check system or a more efficient, cheaper, and more secure means of moving financial information.” [56] Electronic communication and the integration of financial markets have been made possible by the growth of the internet.[57] The ability to protect illegal income and illicit funds of transnational criminal activity, tax evasion and corruption has served as significant incentives for the growth of this activity. There is limited risk and few deterrents for the money launderers and the professionals who aid their activities.[58]"Perhaps half of the industrialized world's stock of money resides in or passes through tax havens."[59]

            Al Qaeda “uses an amalgam of private enterprises, corporate shells and charities that are structured like a financial archipelago with connections hidden beneath the surface…Government officials exploring Al Qaeda´s operation in Bosnia found that operatives skimmed money from relief charities and linked up with Bosnian crime bosses.” [60]Osama bin Laden's diversified funding network “has for years moved illicit funds to its vast network by taking advantage of the lack of transparency and accountability in the international banking system. The global volume of laundered money is estimated to be from 2 percent to 5 percent of global gross domestic product, between $600 billion and $1.5 trillion.”[61]   Laundered money has even been traced back to global businesses like the illicit diamond trade organized by RUF rebels in Sierra Leone. [62] “A U.N. panel of experts estimated the market value of RUF "blood diamonds" sold in 1999 at about $75 million.”[63]          Al Quaeda was involved in the global market, selling stocks prior to September 11th. [64]“To do this it must be presumed that various offshore entities or other kinds of front companies have been used. The ultimate aims of such corporate structuring is to totally dissociate the companies dealing in the world’s financial markets from the ultimate beneficial owner(s) of the funds used.” The Financial networks accessed by al Quaeda were large.[65] “To operate as Al Maida does, without being discovered, requires an approach that embraces diversity and multiplicity when it comes to managing and moving money...few financial jurisdictions will be untouched by Bin Laden’s operations and that many banks have inadvertently allowed his money, or that of his associates, to pass through their operations.”[66] It was discovered that “Bin Laden holds bank accounts in Nicosia, Cyprus and also uses the Island as a transit point for exports. Claims have been made in the past that Bin Laden operates a substantial amount of business through companies registered in Luxembourg and Amsterdam”[67] and “funneled funds through the Dubai Islamic Bank in Dubai, which is controlled by the United Arab Emirates.”[68]

            Globalization of digital communication technologies helps to create a more connected, more informed, more socially-interwoven world, however digital communication technologies like the Internet, are tools that can be utilized indiscriminately by virtually everyone.[69] It is the powerfully beneficial technologies of telecommunications and computing, which have become the indispensable infrastructure for international commerce also support the transnational activities of sophisticated criminal groups. These groups use electronic data interchange, electronic funds transfer, software agents, smart cards, virtual banking and other cyber cash technologies to facilitate their transnational financial activities” [70]        Once again, Al Qaeda has used technological globalization as weapons of terror. The attacks of September 11th were carried out with Boeing 757 and 767 aircraft, current, fly by wire, computer controlled passenger planes.[71]Al Qaeda is a technically sophisticated operation that communicates electronically through the Internet[72] and Bin Laden skillfully uses mass media, especially videos and has made use of widely available technologies to communicate quickly and securely.[73] The internet has made “global communications virtually free for anyone with access to a modem. Similarly, the internet has reduced the costs of searching for information and making contacts related to instruments of wide scale destruction.”[74] It is reported that Al Qaeda members,

 “used encrypted email to communicate; stenography to hide encoded messages in web images …; Kinko’s and public library computers to send messages; underground banking networks called hawala to transfer untraceable funds; 24/7 cable networks like al-Jazeera and CNN to get the word out; and, in their preparations for 9-11, a host of other information technologies like rented cell phones, online travel agencies, and flight simulators. In general, networks – from television primetime to internet real-time – delivered events with an alacrity and celerity that left not only viewers but decision-makers racing to keep up” [75]


            The web is one of al Qaeda’s most widely used weapons in their war on terror. They use a large network of websites to recruit supporters worldwide and dispatch covert messages. These sites parade“ videos of terrorist attacks, proclamations by al-Qaeda's leaders and calls to Muslims to take action against the West are being spread by the disparate group of sites. With net access spreading swiftly in the Middle East, the audience for the propaganda is steadily growing.”[76] Al Qaeda websites have been accountable for first broadcasting the statement by Sulaiman abu Ghaith claiming responsibility for the attacks in Mombassa, before even being broadcast by the al-Jazeera television network.[77]

 “The sites also publish the proclamations of al-Qaeda leaders and their denunciations of Western culture. They also host religious texts, arguments justifying terrorism, videos and audio files as well as provide chat rooms and bulletin boards where people can debate religion and politics. Many of these online debating rooms are free of the restrictions some Middle Eastern regimes impose on their citizens. Some al-Qaeda sympathizers use net cafes offering cheap net access. But, said Mr. Eedle, many al-Qaeda supporters are educated, urban professionals who have their own PC at home.”[78]


To safeguard their anonymity most al-Qaeda site webmasters use net service and hosting providers in the West. These western providers are vulnerable hosts to their secretly installed web pages and are easier to hide because of abundant resources.[79]

Globalization and terrorism are undeniably linked. Globalization provides an easy instrument for global terrorism most importantly, through the exploitation of technological advances and economic integration. Osama bin Laden and his al Qaeda network is the ultimate expression of a global society. Douglas Farah and Peter Finn from the Washington Post call this new wave of terrorism “Terrorism Inc.”, as Al Qaeda Franchises their Brand of Violence to Groups Across World.[80] Although terrorism is a centuries-old scourge, it has adapted and evolved itself to our new, globalized world with frightening results. Al Qaeda exemplifies how terrorist networks have warped the benefits and conveniences of our increasingly open, integrated, and modernized world to serve their own destructive agenda.[81] The al Qaeda network continues to remain dependent on the world they purport to hate and could only have developed with globalization. “Both Globalization and al Quaeda advanced dramatically during the 1990’s”[82] and globalization provided a means for the attacks of September 11th to take place. While the new emphasis on heightened security measures and border controls appear to hinder globalization, “the international actors, institutions of globalization, etc. will “adapt to heightened security measures”[83]and the processes of transnational integration will continue even though maybe on a somewhat slower pace. More Globalization is needed to fight the war on terrorism and will continue to accelerate. Global regulations on money laundering, corruption and drug trafficking are already being addressed by the global community to suffocate terrorists from finances. Significant movements in money laundering like “The FATF have made the best-known efforts to date toward creating such a global standard. In broad terms, its Forty Recommendations on combating money laundering have formed the basis of counter laundering legislation in its own 31 member states and in many others.” [84]On the financial front, accelerated technology and global coordination have shown impressive results on the financial front under UNSCR 1373.[85] “So far, over 160 countries have joined us in blocking $116 million in terrorist assets. More than 215 terrorist groups and entities have been designated under the president’s executive order that freezes U.S.-based assets.”[86] A 29-nation group promoting policies to combat money laundering, the Financial Action Task Force has “adopted strict new standards to deny terrorists access to the world financial system…. The European Union has worked closely with the United States to ensure that nearly every terrorist individual or group designated by our government is also designated by the EU.”[87] In addition, APEC has also adopted an anti-terrorist finance action plan. [88] “Trade is supposed to promote peace, and in an unexpected way it may be helping to fight terrorism. “[89]Many multilateral forums utilizing global principles, such as NATO and OAS, ASEAN and OAU have adopted resolution to tighten border security and drug trafficking. [90] One truth remains: It is impossible to stop technology and just as impossible to stop destructive people but both can be regulated. It is likely that globalization will continue to be employed by terrorists as a threat to the security and stability of the free world but it can also be used as a weapon of counter attack to reduce the risks.














[1] Harris, Paul. “Immigration, Globalization and National Security: An Emerging Challenge to the Modern Administrative State”.Southeastern Confernece for Public Administration. October 2-5, 2002.


[2] Friedman, Thomas L. The Lexus and the Olive Tree. First Anchor Books,2000.,pp. 9.


[3] Chomsky, Noam. 2001. “September 11th and Its Aftermath: Where is the World Heading?”. Public Lecture at the Music Academy, Chennai (Madras), India: November 10, 2001.


[4]Gottlieb, Gidon.  “Nations without States.” Foreign Affairs May/ June 1994. Volume 73 No. 3


[5]Rourke, John T. International Politics On the World Stage. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1997., pp. 222.


[6] Norberg, John. In Defense of Global Capitalism. , Cato Inst., 2003.


[7] Schmid, Jongman. 1988. Political terrorism: a new guide to actors, authors, concepts, data bases, theories, and literature. Amsterdam: North Holland, Transaction Books, pp.28


[8] Alden, Edward. “Globalisation Cited as Threat to US Security”, Financial Times , February 11, 2003 


[9] “Transnational Crime: A threat to International Peace and Security.” A briefing presented to the Foreign Service Institute Department of Foreign Affairs On July 08, 2000., December 2,  2004


[10], December 2, 2004 


[11] , November 29, 2004.


[12] , November 29, 2004


[13] “Changing Today’s Consumption Patterns—for tomorrow’s human development.” United Nations

Development Report 1998.


[14]  The United Nations Declaration of Human Rights.


[15] Reich, Robert.  The Work of Nation London: Simon and Schuster, 1991.


[16]Hefti, Anny Misa. “The Philippines:Globalization and Migration.”.European Solidarity Conference on the Philippines, Responding to Globalization, September 19-21, 1997, pp. 1


[17] Nye, Joseph.  Power in the Global Information Age.  Routledge, 2004, pg.


[18] Nye, Joseph. Power in the Global Information Age. Routledge, 2004, pg.


[19] Becker, Elizabeth. “Report Says Aid to Weak States is Inadequate” New York Times. June 9, 2004, p. A3


[20] Becker, Elizabeth. “Report Says Aid to Weak States is Inadequate” New York Times. June 9, 2004, p. A3


[21] Becker, Elizabeth. “Report Says Aid to Weak States is Inadequate” New York Times. June 9, 2004, p. A3


[22]Alden, Edward. “Globalisation Cited as Threat to US Security”, Financial Times , November 28, 2003.


[23] Crocker, Chester. “Engaging Failing States.”, Foreign Affairs. September/October 2003. pp. 37.


[24] Crocker, Chester. “Engaging Failing States.”, Foreign Affairs. September/October 2003. pp. 37.


[25] Crocker, Chester. “Engaging Failing States.” Foreign Affairs. September/October 2003. pp. 37.


[26] Crocker, Chester. “Engaging Failing States.” Foreign Affairs. September/October 2003. pp. 37.


[27] Roach, Stephen, Sand in the Gears of Globalization” Newsweek. February 2004.

[28] Roach, Stephen, Sand in the Gears of Globalization” Newsweek. February 2004.


[29] National Commission on Terrorism: Countering the Changing Threat of International Terrorism, November 28, 2004.


[30] “Terrorism/ Special Report.” Time Magazine Online. ,  March 14, 2004.


[31] “Transnational Crime: A threat to International Peace and Security.” A briefing presented to the Foreign Service Institute Department of Foreign Affairs On July 08, 2000., November 27,2004.


[32]Mackinlay, John. “Tackling bin Laden: lessons from history”The Observer, Sunday October 28, 2001.

[33] “Al Quaeda forming new cells worldwide.” CNN News. July 31, 2001 , November 28, 2004


[34] National Commission on Terrorism: Countering the Changing Threat of International Terrorism, November 29, 2004.


[35] “Al Qaeda, Afghanistan, Islamists.”Council on Foreign Relations. , November 19, 2004


“Al Qaeda, Afghanistan, Islamists.”Council on Foreign Relations. , November 19, 2004


[37] “Al Qaeda, Afghanistan, Islamists.”Council on Foreign Relations. , November 19, 2004


[38] “Investigators: Terrorist attacks cost $500,000.” USA Today. , November 23, 2004.


[39]National Commission on Terrorism: Countering the Changing Threat of International Terrorism, November 27, 2004.


[40]National Commission on Terrorism: Countering the Changing Threat of International Terrorism, November 27, 2004.


[41] “Transnational Crime: A threat to International Peace and Security.” A briefing presented to the Foreign Service Institute Department of Foreign Affairs On July 08, 2000., November 27, 2004.


[42] Kupchinsky, Roman. “The Globalization of Narcotics.”, November 25, 2004.


[43] Kupchinsky, Roman. “The Globalization of Narcotics.”, November 25, 2004.


[44] Eichenwald, Kurt. “Terror Money Hard to Block, Officials Find.” The New York Times, December 10, 2001.


[45] Watson, Paul and Marshall, Tyler and Drogin, Bob. “On the trail of the real Osama Bin Laden.” The Los Angeles Times. September 15, 2001.


[46] Scarborough, Rowan.”Drug money sustains al Qaeda.”The Washington Times. December 29, 2003.


[47] Sullivan, Rohan. “Official calls money laundering an ``international scourge.''  SF Gate. March, 2004. , November 25, 2004.


[48] Wechsler, William F. “Follow the Money.” Foreign Affairs. July/August 2001. h                

[49] United Nations International Drug Control Programme,1997 from  World Drug Report Oxford: Oxford University Press, 141; Beare, Margaret .Money Laundering: A Preferred law Enforcement target for the 1990’s, 1995. Albanese, Jay (Ed.). Contemporary Issues in Organized Crime, Monsey, NY:Criminial Justice Press, 1995.  In Trends in Organized Crime, 1 (1), pp. 95-105, 1995.

[50] Abadinsky, Howard. Organized Crime (6th Edition). Belmont, CA, Wadsworth, 346.


[51], December 3, 2004.


[52] , December 3, 2004.


[53] Tanzi, Vito. Money Laundering and the International Financial System. IMF Working Paper (No. 96,55) Washington: International Monetary Fund.


[54] Tanzi, Vito. Money Laundering and the International Financial System. IMF Working Paper (No. 96,55) Washington: International Monetary Fund.


[55] Morris-Cotterill, Nigel. “Money Laundering.” Foreign Policy. May/June 2001. 


[56] Morris-Cotterill, Nigel. “Money Laundering.” Foreign Policy. May/June 2001.

[57], December 3, 2004


[58] Abadinsky, Howard. Organized Crime (6th Edition). Belmont, CA, Wadsworth, 346.


[59], December 3, 2004


[60] Eichenwald, Kurt. “Terror Money Hard to Block, Officials Find.”