information technology

From the existence of man, information and communication have always formed the basis of human existence.  This fact has driven man to continuously seek ways to improve the processing of information and also communicating same to one another irrespective of the distance on timely bases.  Perhaps the greatest legacy that the 21st century scientist have contributed to mankind is the “Information Resolution” made Possible by rapid development of advances in telecommunication and computer technology as no economy can be sustained today without an integral telecommunication infrastructure.  In the 21st century, the world will be witnessing an upsurge in the Use of telecommunication and information technology in the future in all aspect of human Endeavour.

During the early 1980’s analog cellular telephone systems were experiencing rapid growth in Europe, participating in Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, but also France and German.  Each country developed its own system, which was incompatible with everyone else in equipment and operation.   This was an undesirable situation, because not only was the mobile equipment Limited to operation within natural boundaries but also in a unified Europe was also a very limited market for each type of. Equipment, economics of scale and subsequent savings could not be realized. In 1982 the conference of European Post and Telegraphs (CEPT) formed a study group called the Group Special Mobile (GSM) to

Study and develop a Pan European Public Land Mobile System.  The proposed system had to meet certain criteria.

. Good subjective speech quality
. Low terminal and service cost
. Support for international roaming
. Ability to support handheld terminal
. Support for range of new service and qualities
. Special efficiency
. ISDN Compatibility

In 1989, G.S.M responsibility was transformed to the Europe Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) and phase’s one of the G.S.M specifications were published in 1990. Commercial services were started in mid – 1991 and by 1993 there were 36 G.S.M Networks including DCS 1800 and PCS (1900) are operationally in 100 countries around the world.  In the beginning of 1994, There were 3.8 million subscribers worldwide, which have grown to more than 215 million by October, 1997.  But, since 2010 till date, there are over 5 billion subscribers worldwide. 

G.S.M system exists on every continent and the acronym G.S.M now apathy stands for Global System for Mobile Communication. The developers of G.S.M close an un-proven digital system, as opposed to the then-standard analog cellular system like AMPS In the United States and TACS in the United Kingdom.  They had the belief that advancements in compression algorithms and digital signal processors would allow the improvement of the original criteria and the continual improvement of the system in terms of quality and cost.  The over 8000 pages of G.S.M recommendation try to allow flexibility and competitive innovation among suppliers, but provide enough standardization to guarantee proper networking between the components of the system. This is done by providing functional and interface description for each of the functional entries defined in the system. 

“The most important events in the development of the G.S.M system are presented thus.

  Events in the Development of GSM

YEAR             EVENTS

1992     CEPT Established a GSM Group to develop the standards for A Pan European Cellular   Mobile System

1985    Adoption of a list of recommendations generated by the group.

1986    Field tests were performed to test the different radio techniques proposed for the air    interface

1987    TDMA was chosen as access method (in fact, it was used with FDMA).  Initial Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed by telecommunication operators (representing 12 countries)

1988    Validation of the GSM system

1989    The responsibility of the GSM specification was passed to the ETSI

1990    Appearance of the phase I of the GSM specification

1991    Commercial launching of the GSM service

1992    Enlargement of the countries that signed the GSM MOU coverage of larger cities/airports

1993    Coverage of main roads GSM services start outside Europe

1994    Phase II of the GSM specifications coverage of rural areas