What is blood pressure?
Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the artery walls. The contraction of the heart is pumping the blood that creates this force. When the heart contracts (beats), the blood pressure increases. When relaxes (between beats) it decreases. It is greater in the smaller arteries and veins. The arteries carry oxygenated blood through the body and veins return the blood without oxygen to the heart.
What is high blood pressure?
It occurs when blood vessels become narrow or rigid, forcing the heart to pump blood with more force through the body. When the force of blood against the artery wall becomes very high, it is said that the individual has high blood pressure or hypertension.
What do the numbers when determining blood pressure?
The initial number, to determine the blood pressure, is the systolic pressure. It indicates the force that causes the heart to pump blood. The second is the pressure in the arteries when the heart is not contracting (between beats). Usually a blood pressure above 140/90 is considered high for adults. For seniors (65 or more) pressure above 160/90 is taken as high.
Children may have high blood pressure?
Yes, although not as common as in adults. The regular blood pressure determination should be made throughout life.
Is there any relationship between high blood pressure and kidney disease?
Yes, hypertension and renal disease are closely related. If the high pressure is not controlled there may be kidney damage. Hypertension is a leading cause of kidney failure worldwide.
Moreover, some problems can cause renal hypertension. Correcting the problem can eliminate the high pressure in some cases.
As detects hypertension?
Hypertension is a silent disease. Symptoms usually are not present, although some who have high blood pressure may complain about headaches, dizziness or nosebleeds. Usually the only way to determine if the disease is to measure blood pressure. Your doctor, nurse or other professional in the area of ??health can determine your blood pressure quickly, painlessly, using a device called a sphygmomanometer. If the first measurement of blood pressure revealed a high value is important to measure it again. A single abnormal determination does not necessarily mean you have high blood pressure.
What are the symptoms of hypertension?
This anomaly is often called the "silent killer" because symptoms are often absent. In the United States it is believed that approximately 60 million Americans suffer from hypertension. The only way to know is to measure it frequently.
What are the causes?
Although various diseases including kidney disease, can cause high blood pressure in 90% of cases the cause is not identifiable. These individuals are considered to have primary or essential hypertension. Some are more likely to develop hypertension. These are: the elderly, those with a family history of blood pressure, overweight individuals and people of the black race. Too much salt in the diet can also increase the risk of developing the disease.
What are kidney problems that cause this evil?
Can develop as a result of a variety of renal disorders. Some more common as glomerulonephritis or nephritis - disease in which the filtering units (glomeruli) become inflamed. This inflammation (nephritis) can be acute or chronic polycystic disease - an inherited disease in which large cysts develop kidney tissue destroying the normal kidney, renal artery stenosis - in this case there is a narrowing of one or both arteries that carry blood to the kidneys.
In addition, can cause renal hypertension due to excessive retention of salt and liquid or causing the release of a hormone produced in the kidney, called renin.
Some of these conditions can be treated successfully by removing blood pressure. For example, the renal artery stenosis may be corrected by surgery or by a technique called angioplasty.
What else can cause hypertension?
May occasionally result from an abnormality in the endocrine glands such as the adrenal, pituitary, thyroid or parathyroid. These causes are relatively rare and can be cured by treating the endocrine abnormality. Some medications such as birth control pills, decongestants and diet pills can also raise blood pressure. Your doctor may advise you to discontinue the medication or exchange it for another.
Why high blood pressure is so dangerous?
If hypertension is not controlled, can be lethal injury of organs, especially heart, brain, kidneys, arteries and other body parts. There is an acceleration of atherosclerosis, which is the formation of cholesterol deposits in blood vessels causing obstruction of blood vessels that supply the heart producing heart attack (myocardial infarction). The strength of the heart to pump against high pressure can make you poor. The obstruction of blood vessels supplying the brain causes the "spills" and if the pressure is extremely high, these vessels can rupture causing a brain hemorrhage. The same phenomenon in the vessels that supply the legs can cause gangrene.
Hypertension is more severe in blacks?
Yes It is a leading cause of death in African Americans. Plus there is a higher incidence, they have it in the most severe and serious and develop at an earlier age.
As this disease damages the kidneys?
You can make the blood vessels of the kidneys more thickened and stiff. With this, there is a reduction in blood supply become ineffective renal function. Therefore, these organs become incapable of removing harmful substances from the body. There is a salt retention, which causes the body to store liquid. This accumulation overwhelms the heart, increases blood pressure and can lead to the form of edema (swelling). Decreased blood flow may also damage the kidneys further renal tissue, causing a greater loss of renal function. Eventually there is a total failure causing uremia. This type of injury occurs when the pressure is not controlled.
How is hypertension treated?
When detecting the disease are recommended some changes in lifestyle. Losing weight, reducing salt and alcohol, stop smoking, exercise regularly and reduce stress. Usually these measures control the blood pressure.
If these lifestyle changes do not normalize blood pressure or if this is extremely high no need to prescribe medication. In many cases it is necessary to take the medication for life.
These drugs cause side effects?
Yes, some of these medicines can cause weakness, fatigue, insomnia, increased frequency of urination, depression, confusion, dry mouth, nasal congestion, dizziness, headache, decreased sexual function. Any other symptoms should be reported to your doctor. The medications can be changed to eliminate these effects intolerable.