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Jane Fonda: Traitor or Pawn?

By Edited Oct 14, 2016 5 15

Jane Fonda - early years

Recently the news broke Jane Fonda was to be honored as one of the top 100 women of the century.  The news brought a firestorm of protests from veterans of the Vietnam War and their families.  Though the war and Fonda’s actions happened decades in the past; memories are still fresh regarding her activism and how it impacted the soldiers, especially the POWs in Vietnam and when they returned home.  In this day of advanced technology with the internet, there are numerous stories of her acts, some true; others though based in truth are elaborated to falsehood.  Was Jane Fonda a traitor as many still belief to this day; or was she merely a pawn in the unpopular war? 

Accusations About Hanoi Jane 

Regardless of where you stand on the issue, there are facts about Fonda’s anti-war activities neither side debate.  Fonda did travel to Vietnam in 1972; she was photographed sitting in the seat of a North Vietnamese anti-aircraft gun; she did broadcast numerous speeches on the radio of Hanoi; she did set up coffee houses to encourage soldiers to “rethink” their position on the war though never directly asked them to desert their posts; she did engage in numerous anti-war protests and used her money and influence to rally others; and she did make a comment the Vietnam vets were liars when they claimed torture and inhumane treatment at the hands of their captors.  

The Infamous Photos of Fonda on the Anti-aircraft Gun 

Stories abound regarding Fonda’s activities while visiting North Vietnam.  As usual, there are two sides to every story.   Fonda did visit Hanoi in 1972 for a two week tour conducted by unifo

Hanoi Jane - photo source: 1stcavmedic.com/jane_fonda.htm
rmed military of the North Vietnamese.  She visited hospitals, schools, villages and several economic and culture venues.  She spoke on Hanoi radio and was photographed with an anti-aircraft crew. 

The photos of Fonda with the anti-aircraft guns show Fonda laughing and smiling, looking through the scope of one of the guns, and applauding the crew.  The majority of Vietnam veterans interpret the photographs as Fonda supporting the enemy’s cause.  According to Fonda, the photos were taken on the last day of her trip. She claims she was exhausted and was greeted by a large group, about twelve uniformed men and numerous media personnel.  She claims they were all, including her, laughing, smiling, and clapping. She states the men sang a song for her and when translated, it made her cry.  They asked her to sing a song and “as it turned out” she was “prepared for just this moment.”  She sang a song she had memorized and because she “slaughtered” the language everyone was laughing and applauding her efforts.  At that time Fonda claims she was led to the seat at the anti-aircraft gun and didn’t really realize where she was sitting; the clapping and laughing had nothing to do with where she was sitting. Pict

Jane Fonda Interacting with North Vietnamese Soldiers -  Source: http://www.1stcavmedic.com/jane_fonda.htm
ures were snapped and it was only afterwards she thought about where she was sitting.  According to Fonda she realized it looked like she was trying to shoot down U. S. planes and she begged her translator to make sure the photos were never published.  The translator assured her it would be taken care of and she didn’t know what else she could do.  Fonda implies she might have been used; but she will never know for sure.   
Hanoi Jane on Anti-aircraft Gun -  Source: http://www.1stcavmedic.com/jane_fonda.htm

Fonda has since apologized for the photos, explaining she was young and didn’t use good judgment.  She has insisted this is the only action she regrets and the only action for which she needs to apologize.  She insists her actions were against the war itself; not the men who fought it.  Vietnam vets point out the apologies coincide with releases of films she was promoting at the time. Most do not believe her apologies are sincere.  Furthermore, most believe she has more than the photos for which she needs to apologize. 

Hanoi Jane and the POWs 

During Fonda’s trip to Vietnam, July 8-22, 1972, she recorded numerous interviews which were broadcast by Radio Hanoi. Twelve of the interviews focused on American servicemen as the primary target.   The key themes of her speeches included endorsements of the Viet Cong “7 point Peace Plan,” allegations of the Nixon administration lying about the war,  claims the U.S. was violating international law and committing genocide, demands to the U.S. to halt bombing of North Vietnam, and statements regarding confidence in the ultimate victory of North Vietnam. According to Fonda, her broadcasts on the Hanoi radio were strictly about the war itself and truths about the policies and actions of then president Richard Nixon.  

Stories are circulating detailing how Fonda took slips of papers from POWs and gave them to their captors; of one POW spitting on her when forced to meet with her; of other POWs receiving beatings for refusing to meet with her.  In truth, Fonda met with seven POWs, all of whom agreed to the meeting; identified as Edison Miller, Walter Wilbur, James Padgett, David Wesley Hoffman, Kenneth James Fraser, William G. Byrns, and Edward Elias.  Retired Colonel Larry Carrigan who was credited with being beaten for slipping paper with his social security number written on it to Fonda, adamantly denies this ever happened.  He reportedly grew so tired of denying this story; he quit talking to the media.  Air Force pilot Jerry Driscoll was credited with spitting on Fonda and being beaten for it.  He too, adamantly denies this happening and doesn’t know how this story came about.  

Mike McGrath, the current president of Nam-POWs, has worked hard to help Driscoll and Carrigan stop the false rumors circulating under their names. According to Snopes McGrath sent out this statement:

“Please excuse the generic response, but I have been swamped with so many e-mails on the subject of the Jane Fonda article (Carrigan, Driscoll, strips of paper, torture and deaths of POWs, etc.) that I have to resort to this pre-scripted rebuttal. The truth is that most of this never happened. This is a hoax story put on the internet by unknown Fonda haters. No one knows who initiated the story. Please assist by not propagating the story. Fonda did enough bad things to assure her a correct place in the garbage dumps of history. We don’t want to be a party to false stories, which could be used as an excuse that her real actions didn’t really happen either. I have spoken with all parties claimed: Carrigan, Driscoll, et al.  They all state that this particular internet story is a hoax and they wish to dissociate their names from the false story.”

 According to David Emery in his article, "Hanoi Jane" on ask.com/urban legends, when confirming the details of the circulating internet stories, the last anecdote in the email detailing the experience of a POW who agreed to meet with Fonda, but told his captors he would tell her about the horrible conditions in the North Vietnamese prison camps, was true.  According to the story, for three days, the POW was then forced to his knees on a rocky floor with his arms outstretched and a piece of steel placed in each hand and beaten when his arms dipped. The POW, Michael Benge, was a civilian adviser captured in 1968 and held as POW for five years. He did not however, contribute to the story in the circulating email. 

In Emery’s correspondence with ex-POWs, none of them believed a good cause was ever well served by lies.  One ex-POW, Paul Galanti stated while none of the ex-POWs are fans of Jane Fonda, they didn’t create the lies and falsehoods.  None were able to identify who started the stories, but Carrigan and McGrath voiced doubts it was a POW. McGrath explained to Emery,

"She did enough to place her name in the trash bin of history. None of us need to make up stories on her." 

In defending herself against claims of helping the North Vietnamese regarding the POWs, Fonda implies she was the scapegoat for POW propaganda orchestrated by then president Nixon. She claims she was targeted by the government to divert attention from the truth of what the United States military was doing in Vietnam. She claims the Pentagon hand-picked veterans to go on the talk circuit and talk about their treatment during capture.  According to Fonda, she was so angry about the way the torture story was being manipulated she stated the POWs claiming tortu

Jane Fonda with North Vietnamese Soldiers - Source: http://www.1stcavmedic.com/jane_fonda.htm
re were liars, hypocrites, and pawns.   According to Fonda her words were: “I’m quite sure that there were incidents of torture…but the pilots who are saying it was the policy of the Vietnamese and that it was systematic, I believe that’s a lie.”  She also claims the torture of prisoners stopped after 1969; well before her trip to Vietnam, citing books written by former POWs.  On her website addressing this issue, Fonda also cites McGrath’s response, though it is not the version cited on Snopes, thus keeping her name out of the quote. 

Consequences of Jane Fonda’s Actions 

In August of 1972, the House Internal Security Committee rejected a request by Representative Fletcher Thompson (R) to subpoena Fonda.  Instead the Committee asked the Justice Department for a report on Fonda’s trip.  Later that month, the Washington Post reported ane lawyers from the Justice Department concluded Fonda had not violated any statues,  including those prohibiting Americans from attempting “to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, or refusal of duty by any member of the military.”  The Attorney General stated the damage was slight and the interest in favor of free speech was high.  He described Fonda as a girl acting foolishly, but exercising her right to free speech.  Other government officials and members of the Supreme Court had similar attitudes towards Fonda’s actions.  

Two months after Fonda returned from Hanoi, then president Nixon received a brief reporting Congress had studied the transcripts of her Radio Hanoi broadcasts and declared though she posed questions to U.S. soldiers, she didn’t urge defections and limited her advice to pleas to end bombings.  According to FBI documents, which Fonda cites in her autobiography, her file was given to three in-house reviewers to determine whether “clandestine investigation” should continue.  All three reviewers reported it should be discontinued. 

August 3, 1995, the Wall Street Journal published an interview with Bui Tin who was on the General Staff of the North Vietnam Army and received the unconditional surrender of South Vietnam.  Tin was asked about the impact of the anti-war movement and he responded "It was essential to our strategy."  He added the leadership of North Vietnam listened to nightly American news broadcasts to follow the growth of the anti-war movement.  He also stated visits by persons such as Jane Fonda, former Attorney General Ramsey Clark and several church ministers gave them confidence to hold on in the face of battlefield reverses.  He concluded "America lost because of its democracy; through dissent and protest it lost the ability to mobilize a will to win."  According to Tin, the anti-war demonstrations and sensationalism in the media after the Tet Offensive of 1968 gave the North Vietnamese belief they could have victory if they stayed the course because America’s response of the events showed weakening of a resolve to win the war. 

Despite the government’s take on Fonda’s actions, Vietnam veterans continue to condemn her for her actions in Hanoi and also for comments she made upon her return.  Many vets point out the negative impact she had on soldiers in general and many believe she was instrumental in the defeat and ensuing attitude of the American people towards Vietnam vets.  Some have quoted Fonda from speeches she made to various college students espousing her communist leanings.

Regardless which side of the fence one falls, Fonda did some foolish things by her own admission.  The whole truth and depth of events will probably never be known as the only ones who truly know exactly what happened are the people involved; those actually in attendance; those

Hanoi Jane Sitting on Anti-aircraft Gun -  Source: http://www.1stcavmedic.com/jane_fonda.htm
who said and did the deeds.  With so many people having so many agendas, how does one know who is telling the truth?

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources: 

wintersoldier.com (accessed January 22, 2013) 

urbanlegends.about.com (accessed January 22, 2013) 

1stcavmedic.com (accessed January 22, 2013) 

janefonda.com (accessed January 22, 2013) 

snopes.com (accessed January 22, 2013) 

archive.org/stream/hearingsregardin1972unit/hearingsregardin1972unit_djvu.txt (accessed January 22, 2013) 

academia.edu/1394572/Jane_Fondas_Antiwar_Activism_and_The_Myth_of_Hanoi_Jane (accessed January 22, 2013)

 

 

The copyright of the article “Jane Fonda: Traitor or Pawn?” is owned by Cheryl Weldon and permission to republish in print or online must be granted by the author in writing.

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Comments

Jan 25, 2013 12:14am
Gonzo
Wow! Great article. I learned a lot. It is nice to see a single article on Fonda that covers both sides.
Jan 28, 2013 2:30pm
weianow
Thank you. I too learned a lot while researching this article. I was especially surprised to read the quotes from speeches Fonda made to college stduents which advocated for communism.
Jan 25, 2013 8:35am
Marlando
Hi--darned smart article!
When Jane Fonda went to Hanoi, I was one of those who hated her for such defiance. Well, I was just out of the Army and anyway, I have been raised to love our flag right or wrong. I have changed my mind having many years to contemplate ourselves as a nation and have learned that our reasons for warring, with the exception of the world wars, have all but exclusively been for self-serving reasons. The vietnam war for example was basically "heated up" because the North attacked one of our Nave ships in the sea of Tonkin as announced by the presidentcy--an attack that NEVER happened. Don't take me wrong, I love our country based on its ideals but those ideals have gone seriusly by the wayside since the late 1800s. Take the Spanish/Amercan war for example. Anyway, well written piece and 2 thumbs up from me and a rating.
Jan 28, 2013 2:29pm
weianow
Yes, I have become quite cynical of the media, the government, etc. How do we know what is truth and what is lies anymore?
Jan 28, 2013 5:13pm
Marlando
This is not a problem exclusive to our country--every country and nation in the world indoctrinates its citizens. This has been happeing since the advent of civilization itself so we can only hope that one day this will change and we can finally arrive as a cooperative species. Once again--good article!
Jan 28, 2013 2:27pm
weianow
Two of my brothers served in the Vietnam War. One of them will NEVER forgive Fonda. He refuses to watch anything she is in, even if he's heard it's a good movie. He considers her a traitor and always will.
Feb 15, 2013 11:35am
m_spicer
Barbarella! say it isn't so...
Feb 15, 2013 11:51am
JadeDragon
Based on the evidence presented here, Fonda is pond scum. The quotes from the North Vietnamise commander are very enlightening. I oppose war generally but I also support our troops, something the anti-war protesters often failed to do.
Feb 15, 2013 12:29pm
davwrite
As a Brit, I was not affected by the Vietnam war in the same way as the Americans. I was a teenager at the time and thought that Fonda was a traitor to her country. I am older and wiser now and believe she honestly thought that America should get out of Vietnam. The North Vietnamese cleverly (and successfully) exploited her naiivety for their propaganda war - at type of warfare that the USA even now seems unable to wage or combat. I still believe that Fonda has much to answer for but then so does the leadership of all countries involved.
Excellent article.
Feb 15, 2013 1:46pm
weianow
Thanks to all for the nice comments. I'm glad you enjoyed the article. Whether or not Fonda was naive or not, she made choices she has to answer for and it some ways she has taken responsibility for those choices. I just think in other ways she still misses the point of the damage she caused to a lot of veterans and their families. Saying "sorry" doesn't quite fix that I don't think.
Feb 20, 2013 3:35am
mikerobbers
Wow.. I knew she was the activist type back then but I had no idea she made it to Hanoi! Very interesting article.
Feb 25, 2013 10:15pm
vicdillinger
I wouldn't put ANY stock in the Top 100 list Jane is on -- the Most Influential Woman in the 1Cwriting 1D category was freakin' Ann Landers!!! (Gee, it 19s not as if Willa Cather, or Shirley Jackson, or Pearl Buck ever wrote anything 26)

As for Jane, you could just as easily have named this piece "Jane Fonda: Twit or Pinhead." She suffered then from the same malady of today 19s celebrities -- their bigheadedness leads them to foolishly and falsely believe they have special magical powers to solve extremely complicated world problems, problems with nuances beyond their ken, merely with their star-studded presence on the scene. That was Jane 19s problem, and while she is certainly NOT pond scum 13 she WAS 1CBarbarella 1D after all, and for that alone all her alleged sins against right-wing extremists are forgiven 13 she WAS a moron. Good read. A thumb.
Mar 13, 2013 9:40am
JeanBakula
This comment has been deleted.
Mar 13, 2013 10:03pm
weianow
Deleted because it was duplicated.
Mar 13, 2013 9:40am
JeanBakula
It was a fair telling of the story. Both sides lie when it comes to war. I love America, it's a great country, and I'm proud to live here. But the last wars, beginning with Vietnam, were fought for the wrong reasons. We shouldn't have been there, it didn't really change much. As for Jane, she was young and naive, and apparently thought she could "help" by listening to the other side. Either way she was used by both sides, I think she suffered enough. I believe she was trying to help, misguided though she was. Wars are very complicated, and she should have realized she wasn't going to solve anything.
Mar 27, 2013 8:38am
vicdillinger
I agree with you. America hasn't fought a "good" war (justifiable) since WWII. Korea, 'Nam, any Gulf War waste of hundreds of billions of dollars, Afghanistan, et al. Jane just suffered the same way today's celebs do , from an inflated sense of self-importance. i'm sure her heart was in the right place, it was her brain that didn't follow suit. We see the same goofy celeb meddling today. It's still a rockin' article!
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