A Simplified overview of Mouth Anatomy
Oral cavity has an ovoid shape. It has also been separated into oral cavity proper and the oral vestibule. It is bound by the cheeks laterally, the lips to the anterior, floor region of the mouth inferiorly and the oropharynx to the posterior and with the palate superiorly. The bone structure of the oral cavity is represented by the mandibular and the maxillary bones.
Gross Mouth Anatomy of the Mouth Proper
This is made up of soft palate, hard palate, floor of the mouth, tongue and the major salivary glands. The floor of the mouth has been divided into three different parts. The first part is the anterior floor located interiorly to the lingual frenulum and the two sublingual folds found between the mandibular gingival and the lateral tongue. The sublingual papillae can be seen from all parts of the mouth when the tongue is raised. The tongue is a mobile organ made up of muscles and it occupies the largest part of the mouth oropharynx. It plays a major role in pushing the food into the oropharynx and also in production of words when one is speaking.
Salivary glands are large exocrine glands which pour their excretions into the mouth cavity. The glands comprise the sublingual glands, the parotid and the submandibular.
Gross Mouth Anatomy of the oral vestibule
The oral vestibule is bound externally by the cheek mucosa and internally by the teeth and the alveolar processes.
Teeth as Part of the Mouth Anatomy
These are structures made up of calcium whose main function is mastication. Each tooth is composed of a root which is embedded deep in the jawbone and a crown exposed above the gum line. The deciduous teeth are the first ones to emerge and are also referred to as milk teeth. After the deciduous teeth, there is the emergence of permanent dentition.
The masticatory surface of premolars and molars is made up of pointed structures referred to as cusps. Molars usually have four to five cusps and two to three roots while premolars have one to two cusps and one to two roots. The purposes of the two are to crush and grind food. The inner surface of each tooth is connected to the corresponding gum by a fold of the labial frenulum. Studies have evidently shown that the lower labial frenulum is smaller than the upper labial frenulum.
The buccinator muscle is responsible for the formation of the muscular framework of the cheeks. Other muscles which take part in the formation of the cheeks include risorius, zygomaticus, and platysma.
The Retromolar trigone is a triangular shaped part in the oral cavity which covers the anterior ramus of the mandible. Gingival buccal sulcus functions to bind retromolar trigone laterally and the anterior tonsillar pillar function to bind it to the medial side. The teeth and the alveolar jaw bone are covered by the fibroepithelial mucosal tissue. This whole description is part of mouth anatomy which is a bit complex.