An Overview of Lumbar Spine Anatomy
A detailed description of lumbar spine anatomy will have five vertebrae which are numbered from L1 to L5. The entire combination is composed of the five vertebrae, bony components which are joined together by joint capsules and flexible tendons, vertebral muscles and nerve networks. The system also consists of blood vessels and innervations mechanisms of the vertebrae. The vertebrae play a role in protection of the delicate spinal cord and the associated spinal nerve root. The vertebrae allow flexion and extension of the spine because of their high mobility. They will also allow for bending and some degrees of rotation of the column.
Bones Associated with Lumbar Spine Anatomy
The vertical height of lumbar vertebrae is small compared with their horizontal measure. The vertebral bodies function to carry the weight of the whole column. The vertebral arch serves to protect the neural elements while the bony processes help to improve the efficiency at which the surrounding muscles work at. Lumbar vertebrae can be differentiated from thoracic vertebrae by lack of rib facets which are only found in thoracic vertebrae. The lumbar bones are connected together by intervertebral discs and their sizes tends to increase in a direction from L1 To L5.The surface of intervertebral disc has a epiphysial ring which helps to support annular fibers found in adults. In young children, it forms the growth zones for the bones. Within the epiphysial rings is the hyaline cartilage. The vertebral disc is made up of two pedicles in addition to two laminae and seven bony processes which are different. The bony processes are joined together by ligaments and facets of the joints. Intervetebral foramina are found underneath lumbar vertebrae and they are bounded by pedicles both superiorly and inferiorly. Intervertebral disc and vertebral bodies bounds the foramina to the anterior while facet joint bounds it to the posterior. It is through the foramen that meningeal nerve, spinal nerve root and blood vessels pass through. Spinal nerves which arise from each vertebra are located on each side of the layout. Two transverse processes projects laterally between the inferior and superior counterparts of articular processes.
Joints Associated with Lumbar Spine Anatomy
Symphyseal joints which are located between the vertebral bodies allows for the mobility of the entire vertebral column. Synovial joints which are located in between the inferior and superior articulating processes allows for some simple gliding movements of the vertebrae. Within the synovial joints is a lubricating fluid which helps to minimize the effects of friction which would lead to wearing out of the bones surrounding the joint.
Muscles Associated with Lumbar Spine Anatomy
Extensor muscles are usually found in three layers and they move up the length of the vertebral column and only separates based on their superior attachment. The forward flexor muscles are used in the flexion movement of hips and the trunk. They are differentiated into extrinsic (abdominal wall muscles) and intrinsic (iliacus and psoas major muscle). The lateral flexor muscles are used in bending and rotation movements of the vertebral column. Rotators muscles will facilitate the rotational movement of the vertebral column. This is a general focus on lumbar spine anatomy.