Pollution is defined as the introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment. Pollution occurs every time foreign substances like contaminants and toxins are introduced into a particular environment and produce harmful effects to the environment and living organisms. There are many types of polution in this planet but this article discusses air, water, soil, and radioactive pollution.
This is the most common type of pollution and is the most prevalent in every country. Air pollution happens when contaminants such as smog, chemical gases from factories, fumes from automobiles and aerosol sprays are mixed in the air making it impure for human and living organisms to breathe. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide are the common harmful gases found in high concentrations in polluted air. Some of these gases cause global warming and climate change, our major environmental problems today. Air pollution causes respiratory problems as the lungs are damaged due to repeated and long term exposure to harmful gases. Though it is hard to stop air pollution, there are simple ways to prevent it from getting worst: avoid burning trash, walk and don’t drive if going through a short distance, stop smoking and using aerosol sprays, and use hybrid cars.
Another main type of pollution is water pollution, which is caused by releasing or throwing waste products or chemicals from residential and industrial establishments to bodies of water such as rivers, ponds, lakes and oceans. The water becomes polluted as waste products contain harmful chemicals and different types of microorganisms that destroy the living organisms residing in the waters. Aquatic organisms are also destroyed in the process due to lack of oxygen and enough nutrients from clean water. Waste products are absorbed by plants and eaten by fish. Also, humans who rely on bodies of water as their daily source of drink and food would be affected by water pollution. Contaminated water poses potential health risks such as water borne diseases, intestinal problems, parasitic infections. and bacterial infection. This can be prevented by not throwing garbage into bodies of water, standardization of industrial waste management, and avoiding the use pesticides and fertilizers which may be carried into bodies of water.
Soil pollution involves degradation of Earth’s land surface due to improper waste disposal from residential, commercial and industrial areas. Given that majority of waste which contribute to soil pollution are non-biodegradable, the best way to avoid this is to recycle or reuse items and learn to segregate waste products before throwing them away. Chemicals should be put in tight containers to avoid spillage and dispose them properly.
Nuclear plants, mining sites and weapon industries are the sources of radioactive pollution, which often cause long term effect on living organisms and environment. Air, water and soil are all affected by the radioactive chemicals and may retain the elements even after many years of contamination. Radioactive wastes may cause several health problems to humans including breathing problems, sterility, birth defects or miscarriages, cancer and death if not treated right away.
It is important for everyone to be aware on main types of pollution since we are all living in a world getting used to unnatural and impure resources, which we even consider normal. The pollution could all be minimized through constant reminders and actions by the government but the willingness must start within oneself. Everyone must cooperate on cleaning the environment to avoid the problems brought about by air, water, soil, and radioactive pollutions.