After the failed 1857 war of independence, (where Muslims and Hindus battled against the occupation of British Empire) it became clear to the British that Indian Muslims would not tolerate British rule; a program of subjugation was put in place. While some natives were tortured, most of the subjugation came in the form of harassment and limiting opportunities for Indian Muslims. The British limited access to higher education, seized Muslim properties, charged (and convicted) many Muslim leaders of conspiring against the ruling British government. Many of these leaders were jailed. In point of fact, most Muslim Indians were treated as slaves, threatening their economic status.
Such kind of difficulties which Muslims had to face were realized intensely by some colossal Muslim leaders, and the one who made efforts and who raised voice for Muslims was Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan. Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan raised up the voice of equal rights among Hindus and Muslims. He was a great believer of education and addressed to Muslims several times to get education and do not interfere in political matters. He ensured the Muslims that without education there is no possibility of your role in politics, therefore, for that purpose he laid the foundation of school in Aligarh, which later turned into college and eventually as a University (Current name “Aligarh University” situated in India).
The primary purpose of making that education institute was to familiarize English culture and education to Muslims, so, they can be a part of government. In January 1883, Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan in a full bench of British Viceroy council said: “Hindustan is a subcontinent not a country, in this subcontinent; different nations exist in which Muslims are the prime minority and are a different nation from Hindu, based on style of living, culture, language, and religion. Therefore, they must be treated as a distinct nation."
Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan
One of the prominent and most probably the first Muslim Leader of Indian Muslims
Map of Partition of Bengal
Partition of Bengal
In 1905, the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon made the decisive decision of Bengal Partition. This decision, however, were made because of furtherance in administrative affairs. Fifteen districts of Bengal were integrated into Assam to make a new province and its name was kept East Bengal. United Bengal before this division was composed of seventy million people.
Bengalese Hindus and the congress leaders had opposed this partition and the biggest reason was that the raw jute, tea, rice, was cultivated in East Bengal. Moreover, Hindus also pose a growing threat of Muslim Political Power. Thus, Hindus strong protest against the partition canceled it. From Bengal Partition Muslims gained multiple benefits including:
1: Muslims have more opportunities in terms of educational, political, and social.
2: Calcutta and West Bengal Hindus always had exploited Muslims. However, uphold of Hindus was ended with the partition of Bengal.
3: Muslims were easier to solve their problems and they were able to stand on their own feet.
Suspension of Bengal Partition
Since the commencement Hindus was against Bengal Partition as they felt that British did that to make the Bengalese Muslims pleased, but it was not true. For that purpose, Hindus made the decision of civil disobedience and the boycott of British products. They started countryside protest, made speeches against British Empire and several of them attempted to kill British officers.
Eventually after five years Hindus, exertions were paid off when Lord Harding made the final decision in 12 December 1911 of provocation of Bengal Partition. Nonetheless, that decision opposed the interest of Muslim Bengalese, yet this was the revolving point when two-nation theory strengthened itself.
All India Muslim League
After the erect of Indian National Congress, Muslim leaders felt the need of a political party that could represent the entire Muslims of Pak-India Subcontinent. Therefore, for the accomplishment of that objective, on 30 December 1906 prominent Muslim leaders decided to hold a talk at Nawab Salimullah Hall. The leaders who participated was Sir Salimullah, Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, Nawab Waqar-ul-Mulk, Sir Agha Khan, Raja Sahib Mahmoudabad, Nawab Muhammad Ishaq Khan, Sir Ali Imam, Maulana Muhammad Ali Jouhar, Mulana Shaukat Ali, Nawab Sir Ali Muhammad Khan, Hakeem Ajmal Khan, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, Hussain Shaheed Soherwordi, Maulana Hasrat Mohani, Aziz Mirza, Begum Shah Nawaz, Sajzadeh Aftab Ahmed Khan, and Mian Muhammad Shafi.
The resolution of forming All India Muslim League was approved by Nawab Salimullah Khan. Hakeem Ajmal Khan, Maulana Muhammad Ali Jouhar, and Maulana Zafar Ali Khan welcomed the idea and accepted it in All India Muhammadan educational session. Sir Mian Muhammad Shafi proposed the name of All India Muslim League. The main objectives of All India Muslim League were:
1: To develop the sentiment of devotion to the British Empire.
2: To safeguard the protection of Muslims political rights and interests.
3: To prevent the discrimination among various religions and casts.
The main office established at Aligarh. Similarly, on that session Sir Agha Khan was nominated the first President, Nawab Waqar-ul-Mulk secretary, and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk joint secretary of All India Muslim league.
The Great Partition of Indian Subcontinent
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Pundit Moti Lal Nehru
Indian National Congress decided to make a constitution for Pak-India Subcontinent, so, for that purpose they called a joint session of All Parties Conference (APC) on 12 February 1928. On the similar session, all parties with Congress itself approved Delhi proposal. After that two more APC was held but without any outcome. In addition, 19 May 1928 on the last session of APC they prepared a decision of assigning this job to committee and Pundit Lal Nehru was appointed as President and his son Jawaharlal Nehru as as secretary, later the committee called Nehru Committee. Other members of the committee was Sir Ali Imam, Shoaib Qureshi, Sir Tej Bahdur Sapru, Mangal Singh, Subhash Chandra Bose, and MN Joshi.
Since that committee was threatening for Muslim interest in the subcontinent both Sir Ali Imam, and Shoaib Qureshi never contributed in making of constitution.
Recommendations of Nehru Report
This report was given to British government and the recommendations were:
1: Unitary form of government must be adopted in the country.
2: Instead of separate electorate there must be combined method.
3: The allocation of seats must not be specified for Muslims in Punjab and Bengal.
4: Equivalent constitutional status for NWFP and Baluchistan should be rejected.
5: The demand of separating Sindh from Bombay must be rejected.
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Founder of Pakistan
Fourteen Points of Jinnah
In the response of Nehru report Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (founder of Pakistan) submitted his fourteen points. At the annual session of Muslim league council, which was held at Delhi on 28 March 1929, Muhammad Ali Jinnah submitted his fourteen points, which was straightaway accepted by all the members.
1: The forthcoming constitution must be Federal system and provinces have to make sure the same rights.
2: Each province must have a genuine authority to exercise his powers.
3: The minorities should also have the right of electing their representatives.
4: Muslims representatives in the national assembly must be one-third.
5: The process of electing representative must be separate, however in the meantime people belonging from various cast, religion, linguistic has the right to not support the separate electorate method.
6: Whenever there would be any territorial issues the Muslim majority provinces (Punjab, NWFP, Baluchistan, Bengal, Sindh) must not be affected.
7: Public should have freedom of going to their place of worship, exercising their religious festivals, they must have a right to adopt any religion, the right of press, and education should be provided to everybody.
8: No ordinance, law, or resolution can be approved if it is rejected by three-fourths members of Parliament.
9: Sindh ought to be separated from Mumbai so it can be a new province.
10: The legislative assembly must be given adequate representation to minorities.
11: The constitution must make sure about the proper service of Muslims in all governmental institutions.
12: The constitution must also ensure the reasonable provision of Muslim culture, language, religion, and IslÄmic laws.
13: Any cabinet either central or provincial must not be formed without one-third of Muslim members.
14: The nature of legislative assembly should not be changed until the consensus of state.
Brief and Decisive Book on Jinnah
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