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Memory and Alertness: Which Vitamins Support Mental Alertness?

By Edited Nov 13, 2013 1 2

Improve Your Mental Alertness Nutritionally

Vitamin B-12 for Better Cognitive Functions

Boost Your Memory With Vitamin B -12
Credit: Zark Shappard's Photostream

Support Brain Function With B Vitamins

Boost Your Memory With Vitamin B -12

 You can improve your memory, mental alertness and other cognitive functions with two basic groups of vitamins.  These two groups are the B vitamins and the antioxidant vitamins.  B -complex (the  B vitamin group) is made up of nine vitamins:

 l Vitamin B-1 (thiamine)

l Vitamin B – 2 (riboflavin)

l Vitamin B-3 (niacin)

l Vitamin B – 5 (pantothenic acid)   

l Vitamin B -6 (pyrodoxine) 

l Vitamin B -7 (biotin)  

l Vitamin B -8 (inositol)

l Vitamin B – 9 (folic acid)    

l Vitamin B – 12 (cyanocobalamin)     

 Three of these B vitamins are very important for alertness and other cognitive functions.   These  three  B vitamins are folic acid, vitamin B-6 and vitamin B-12.   The anti-oxidant vitamins include vitamins A, C, D, and E.

The B Vitamins

   B Vitamins  have numerous attributes that support brain functions.  They support myelination of the axons of brain cells (neurons).  Myelination is the wrapping of the neuronal axons by the insulating material, myelin sheaths, from the schwann cells. Myelination is important for proper  conduction of electrical impulses in the neurons .  B vitamins also  help with the breakdown of the  amino acid homocysteine.  Homocysteine is a risk factor for cognitive decline.  It is  associated with Alzheimer and dementia.   B  vitamins are  also important for erythropoiesis (production of red blood cells).  Red blood cells are important for adequate oxygen supply to the brain to support its functions.

 The B vitamins support both long and short-term memories.  The effects of these vitamins are particularly notable if one is deficient in them. With regard to deficiency, vitamin B-12 is often the cause of concern. Most of these B vitamins can readily be obtained from vegetables and fruits, particularly, the leafy green vegetables such as spinach and collard greens.  Vitamin B -12, however, can pose a problem in terms of availability and your body's ability to absorb and utilize it.

 Vitamin B-12

 Vitamin B -12 deficiency is a  problem that is prevalent among the aging population.  It  is estimated that 15% of adults over 50 years old  have vitamin B-12 deficiency.  Anemia, lethargy, lack of energy, poor concentration and forgetfulness are some of the symptoms of B-12 deficiency.  

 The elderly are more prone to vitamin B-12 deficiency largely because of digestive problems that make it difficult  for them to digest and absorb vitamin B-12 from nutritional sources.  Vitamin B -12 from animal sources are more digestible than the ones from plant sources.  Plants are generally a weak and poor source of vitamin B -12.   Choosing the animal source for this vitamin, however, does not solve the deficiency problem, because there are other factors that influence the bioavailability and deficiency of this vitamin.

 The presence of adequate amounts of acids (hydrochloric acid) in the stomach is necessary for the proper digestion of vitamin B-12.  Acid is needed to help breakdown vitamin B-12-containing foods so that vitamin B-12  would become available for absorption.   Acid secretion into the stomach tends to decline as we age and this contributes to vitamin B-12 deficiency.  Secondly, some elderly people with digestive problems such as acid reflux disease and peptic ulcer, are often treated with anti-acids (e.g., proton pump inhibitors) which further diminish  the acid in the stomach.

 Alternative Approach for Treating Digestive Problems

 To avoid vitamin B-12 deficiency when treating digestive diseases such as  acid reflux disease and peptic ulcer, it is important to consider alternative approaches that do not decrease stomach acidity.  There are numerous effective nutritional alternatives for treating acid reflux disease such as consuming papaya, aloe vera and pineapple.   This alternative approach has a strong potential for improving the quality of life for the elderly.  The memory and cognitive functions in the elderly would be improved with nutritional treatment  because dementia and other cognitive problems would not be worsened by vitamin B-12 deficiency. 

 Antioxidant Vitamins

 Antioxidant vitamins can prevent the adverse effects of free radicals.  Free radicals are charged molecules that are produced by chemical reactions associated with metabolism and other biochemical processes in the body.  Free radicals are deleterious to cells or various organs and systems,  ranging from the cardiovascular system to the nervous system.  Damages to the cells of a given organ impairs the functional integrity of that organ.  Antioxidant vitamins, particularly vitamins A, C and E protect the brain cells from oxidative damage by free radicals. 

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Comments

Jul 12, 2012 10:44am
Marlando
Really enjoyed your article as I am one of those old timers always shorting out on the Bs. Very well written and informative article--two big thumbs up from me.
Jul 21, 2012 3:59pm
onwoc234
Thank you for reading the article.
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Bibliography

  1. . Joshua W Miller. "Assessing the association between vitamin B-12 status and cognitive function in older adults." American Society for Clinical Nutrition. 84 (2006): 1259-1260.
  2. 2 Hin H, Clarke R, Sherliker P, et al "Clinical relevance of low serum vitamin B12 concentrations in older people: the Banbury B12 study." . Age Aging. ;35 (2006): 416–22..
  3. Katz PO. "Medical Therapy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in 2007. Rev." . Rev Gastroenterol Disord. . 4 (2007): :193-203.

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