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Study Of Motivation In Psychology

By Edited Nov 13, 2013 0 0

Different psychology theories

Maslow's and McGregor's thoughts

Life is comprised of continuous activities and processes which do not cease until the day we die. Everyday, different individuals wake up, eat, go to work, do something that they like, seek pleasure and happiness, and at the end of thed ay, they go home and rest. These myriad of activities go on continuously, day and night, year after year. Yet, each individual activity has a distinctive stimulus that initiates it into motion. This occurrence is best explained by the concept of motivation.

There are many definitions of motivation, but this basically can be explained by the question "what keeps a person going?" Motivation is composed of variables and factors that drive an individual to do something that he/she likes. One of the most common attributes of motivation is goal-setting. If we are to inquire from a group of people the factors that motivate them, the most common answer would be "goal-realization." Whether this goal is a monetary reward, public commendation, work promotion, or simply the satisfaction of one's hunger, these motivate us to realize these goals.

Two theorists conceived the Hierarchy of Needs theory and Theories X & Y to proficiently understand the concept of motivation. These men were Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor, respectively. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy 

Study Of Motivation In Psychology
of Needs theory explains that human needs are based on two hierarchical groupings which are; 1) the deficiency needs, and 2) the growth needs, and within the deficiency needs, each lower need must be met before moving to the next higher level.d of variables and factors that drive an individual to do something that he/she likes. One of the most common attributepsys of motivation is goal-setting. If we are to inquire from a group of people the factors that motivate them, the most common answer would be "goal-realization."

Whether this goal is a monetary reward, public commendation, work promotion, or simply the satisfaction of one's hunger, these motivate us to realize these goals.s of motivation, but this basically can be explained by the question "what keeps a person going?" Motivation is composed of variables and factors that drive an individual to do something that he/she likes. One of the most common attributepsys of motivation is goal-setting. If we are to inquire from a group of people the factors that motivate them, the most common answer would be "goal-realization." Whether this goal is a monetary reward, public commendation, work promotion, or simply the satisfaction of one's hunger, these motivate us to realize these goals.

Abraham Maslow's theory is structured as a pyramid divided into five "need-levels" namely; Physiological, Safety, Love/Belonging, Esteem, and at the top is the Self-Actualization level. Usually, the four lower levels of the pyramid consist of the deficiency needs; they are correlated with the physiological needs. On the other hand, the growth needs are situated at the topmost level of the pyramid, which are linked with the psychological needs. The first level, the Physiological need comprises the individual's basic needs in order to survive such as food, water, and air. Once the needs at this level are satisfied, an individual will be motivated to satisfy the next higher "need-level." At the top is where the Self-actualization needs are situated. This is the level where an individual reaches his/her fullest human potential.

Theories X and Y, on the other hand, by Douglas McGregor are more closely applied in employee motivation within an organizational setting. The two theories explain the different attitudes commonly observe on employees comprising a particular organization's workforce. In Theory X, it is presumed that an average person resists change, dislikes and avoids work, has no ambition whatsoever, and wants no responsibility; thus, in managing him/her, a supervisor needs to apply close supervision, coercion, tight control within an enviro

Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs
nment of control and command. But the problem with this theory is that it creates a hostile attitude of employees towards their supervisors, and often results in low output.

In theory Y, however, it is assumed that workers are self-directed, responsible, loves to work, generally ambitious, highly motivated and that creativity and work is natural to them. Hence, the supervisor needs to be open and caters to the human side of the employees; all they have to do is harness the motivation of these employees. This creates an environment of mutual understanding and participative management, and eventually benefits the organization as a whole. If there is a proper and good implementation of this theory in the organizational setting, the effect is usually an atmosphere of motivation at a higher level.

To be successful later in life is a good motivation in going to school everyday. However, once in a while, a student sometimes feels the pressures and rigors of school life filled with assignments, exams, projects, and lots of textbooks to read. These factors tend to diminish one's motivation. Yet, after learning more about the concepts of motivation in class, I was able to use different motivational concepts as an alternative if the current motivational variable that I am applying doesn't work for the meantime.

For example, I set a reward for myself if ever I reach a particular goal. One instance is that I buy a product that I like in reward for myself if I get a high mark in an exam. I go out and have fun after submitting a good and comprehensive project. Life doesn't have to be all work and no play, as the saying goes, because it makes us dull.

Alternating the application of the motivational concepts that I learned in class helps me in sustaining my enthusiasm and interest in going to class, and eventually, I hope, will lead me to the realization of my dreams and ambitions.


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