As early as October 2012 it was clear that the noble prize for understanding the concept of developing a system without even breaking the laws of quantum physics would go to American scientist David Wineland and his partner from France Serge Haroche. The invention is a path breaking landmark in the field of physics as-well-as computers and it would put an end to the endless usage of slow-running classical computers. The finding was achieved by the two scientists without breaking the quantum particles which was quite an impossible task till today as these particles are considered to be the building blocks of our universe and quickly lose their quantum properties once they come in contact with the outside World.

Being Quantum Computers

A quantum computer is very much different from a normal running computer that would use transistors in performing operations on data. But a quantum computer makes direct usage of quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement. Unlike classical computers that require data to be encoded into binary digits, quantum computers use the properties of quantum in representing and performing operations on data. Quantum computers which are quite similar to non-deterministic and probabilistic computers have the ability to be in one state more than once simultaneously which is called superposition.

Working of Quantum Computers

When two quantum particles interact, they get entangled and upon separating continue to be in the effect of one another even when the interaction is done from a certain distance. In the process of entanglement, the particles go-to a state known as superposition that has the ability to be in one state or more simultaneously. A quantum computer stores information as either 0 or 1 or as a quantum superposition of the two states. Such a quantum bit is known as qubit.

Example

If a qubit is in the superimposition state of 0 and state 1 and it is performing calculation on another qubit in the same superimposition, then a single calculation would yield 4 results.

1. 1/1 result
2. 1/0 result
3. 0/1 result
4. 0/0 result

In a state of decoherence , the results last till the state of superposition exists until it collapses to a single state.

Problems with Quantum Computers

• Quantum decoherence – Qubit calculations are performed while the quantum wave function is in a state of superimposition between the states which allows it to perform calculations using both 1 and 0 states simultaneously.
• Looking at the sub-atomic particles, one can bump them changing their values. Thereby, if you look at a qubit in superposition to determine its value, the qubit will assume the value of either 0 or 1 but not both.