The types of restaurants available are almost endless, considering the amount of different cuisines in the world. The type of cuisine you are craving (Chinese, American, Fast Food, Italian, etc.) will determine the type of restaurant you choose to visit.
Some restaurants serve alcoholic beverages, which usually require the establishment to have a license for liquor sales. Other establishments may not sell alcohol but will allow you to bring your own, making this a BYOB/BYO restaurant. Fast food restaurants, like McDonalds, Subway or Taco Bell cater to the individual that wants to eat in or take out the food with them, but the food is made very quickly and individual need of the customer are often set aside in lieu of putting a product out speedily. Fine dining restaurants will cater to all of a customer's needs from start to finish, but the price tag on the food generally goes up with the amount of service given.
The inner workings of a restaurant can usually be broken down into three parts. Front positions in a restaurant include servers, hosts, and bus people, whereas back positions include chefs, prep cooks, and dishwashers. Management is the third part of the equation, usually managing the money and bookkeeping side of the business, as well as scheduling, hiring and firing of staff.