81 Domitian Becomes Roman Emperor
Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus becomes emperor on September 14, 81 and ruled until his death on September 18, 96. His reign is considered, in retrospect, to be one that was well run, although Emperor Domitian did tend to micromanage. Court officials murdered him in 81, and he was succeeded by his advisor, Nerva. Nerva was the first Emperor that was elected to reign by the Senate. Emperor Domitian left a country behind that was better off financially than when he became Emperor.
325 Council of Nicaea Concludes
In an attempt to get the church to agree and set one system of beliefs, Roman Emperor Constantine gathered a council of church leaders. After some time they settled on the original Nicene Creed and established the relationship of God, Christ and Holy Ghost at the Trinity.
891 Pope Stephen V Dies
Pope Stephen V rules from 885 to 891. His reign was unremarkable in most things. He was faced with a famine at one point, and the papal treasury was empty. He used his family’s money to help the poor. He also used the money to buy back captives and repair churches.
1321 Dante Dies
In 1321, the Italian poet knows as Dante, dies on September 14. Dante was an Italian Poet of the Middle Ages and wrote Divine Comedy. Dante was trained as a pharmacist earlier in his life, because he had aspirations of political power in his home town of Florence, and needed some kind of schooling to hold office. He ended up being on the wrong side of the winners and was exiled. He was never able to return during his lifetime.
He wrote Divine Comedy, while in exile. This masterpiece is considered the best Italian literary work written. It is also considered one of the best written works in history.
Through me you pass into the city of woe:
Through me you pass into eternal pain:
Through me among the people lost for aye.
Justice the founder of my fabric moved:
To rear me was the task of power divine,
Supremest wisdom, and primeval love.
Before me things create were none, save things
Eternal, and eternal I shall endure.
All hope abandon, ye who enter here.
- Dante (Divine Comedy)
1638 John Harvard Dies
John Harvard, a local clergyman in Massachusetts, dies and leaves his library and half his estate to a local college. The name was changed to honor its first benefactor. The school had been established two years before by the Massachusetts legislature, and today is one of the world’s most prestigious schools.
1716 First Lighthouse in US
In September 14, 1716 the first lighthouse in the US went active at Little Brewster Island, overlooking Boston Harbor. There were only about 70 lighthouses in the world at the time. It was destroyed by the British in 1776, but later rebuilt by Massachusetts. It was the last lighthouse in the US to become automated, doing so in 1998. It is a museum today, and the Coast Guard still performs light keeper duties, keeping the light shining.
1741 Handel Finishes Messiah Composition
George Frederic Handel finished his composition of an oratorio named Messiah, using text compiled by Charles Jennens from the Bible and the Book Of Common Prayer. Handel spent just 24 days writing this, but that was not unusual for him. He often wrote his music quickly. He would adopt music from other sources to help him. For Messiah he adapted three Italian duets. This piece has become one of the best known choral pieces of Western Music.
1752 – Britain Adopts Gregorian Calendar
In 1582 Pope Gregory XIII decreed that the Gregorian calendar, also called the Western Calendar or Christian Calendar would be adopted. Some countries started to use the calendar right away, but many would take centuries to do so. The Julian calendar figured the length of a year at 365.25 days, but it is really 11 minutes shorter. Over the years since 45 BC when the Julian calendar had been adopted, the error had added up to 11 days. When adopting the new calendar, 11 days would be skipped. The Julian calendar would have a leap year every 4 years. The new Gregorian Calendar now had leap years every 4 years, except most centurial years, or years divisible by 100. The centurial years that are divisible by 400 still have leap years. So, the year 1900 was not a leap year. The year 2000 was, but 2100 will not be.
With the adoption of the new calendar, in Britain the date jumped from September 2, 1752 to September 14, 1752.
1872 Britain Pays Reparations for Damage During Civil War
During the Civil War, the South had several some battleships built-in Britain at their shipyards. The ships were then used by the south to break blockades and harass shipping Union Shipping. The United States was demanding that Britain pay damages. They ended up paying only $15 million and apologizing.
1901 President McKinley Dies
President William McKinley was elected to the office in 1896. He became known for protecting big business, which had massive growth during his administration. The United States helped China during the Boxer Rebellion, when they were trying to drive out foreigners. He argued that if they wanted to be independent, they had that right. He also led the fight against Spain to free Cuba, which was won in three months. Cuba became a protectorate and the US annexed the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico.
He was shot on September 6, 1901. He was shot twice by an anarchist named Leon Czolgosz, who believed that the government was evil. He had just heard of the assassination of the King of Italy, and decided to copy it.
When President McKinley was shot, he told the crowd not to kill the assassin then they capture and started to beat him. There were various techniques that could have been used on President McKinley, like the newly invented X-ray machine, but they were unsure of the effects.
McKinley looked like he was recovering, but on September 14, 1901 died from gangrene around his wounds.
1959 First Manmade Object Reaches the Moon
The Soviets had been the first to launch a satellite into space with Sputnik in 1957. This caused the United States to accelerate their program. The Russians then went one step further and, although it took them four tries, were able crash a rocket on the moon that contained a Soviet Union Flag. The United States congratulated them, but warned them that it did not mean that the Soviets had any claim to the moon.
Presidential candidate John F Kennedy make it a campaign promise that he would increase spending for the space program, and then did so when he was elected president.
Neil Armstrong stepped on the moon in 1969. The Russians never made a manned landing on the moon.