1854 – First Ship Great Disaster
On September 27, 1854, in the Atlantic, while on its normal route across the Pacific, the SS Arctic collided with another ship and sank. It was a ship from the Collins Line steamships, and carried passengers and mail. Almost 400 people died in the accident. The line was started and subsidized by the US Congress to compete with Cunard, a British company. The Collins Line was the premier company at the time, but with this loss, the loss of another two years later, and then the end of the Crimean War, the Cunard line was able to fight back and then take over. With the loss of two ships, the government took away their mail contracts, which they were dependent on. The company filed for bankruptcy in 1858 and was out of business.
1892 – Book Matches Invented
Joshua Pusey patented the book match on September 27, 1892. He sold the patent to the Diamond Match Company. By 1895 they were making over 150,000 a day. Today, the Diamond Match Company is part of the Jarden Corporation and makes more than 12 billion matches a year.
1940 – Tripartite pact Signed
Signed on September 27, 1940, in Berlin, Germany, the Tripartite Pact established the Axis Power for World War II. Germany, Italy and Japan had representatives there to sign. The Pact established that the countries would help each others for a period of ten years. Hungary, Romania and a few other smaller countries signed later. The Soviet Union considered signing, and later made economic concessions to Germany, but Germany was already planning to invade Russia, so slowed down the talks with them to ensure the Soviets did not sign.
1964 – Warren Commission Report
The Warren Commission presented their final report to President Johnson, and 3 days later, on September 27, 1964, it was made public. It was a report on the assassination of President Kennedy on November 22, 1963. It established that Lee Harvey Oswald had worked alone to kill Kennedy, and Jack Ruby had worked alone in his killing of Oswald. Although meant to be the final word on the assassination, there have been numerous reports and investigations since, with some confirming the Warren Commission, and some stating other theories behind what happened.
2003 – First European Mission to the Moon
On September 27, 2003, the ESA, European Space Agency, launched a moon probe. It was designed by the Swiss, and launched from French Guiana. It was lightweight and inexpensive, compared to other space probes. The probe was named SMART-1, SMART being an acronym for “Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology”. SMART-1 utilized solar power and an on-board propellant to make a slow journey to the moon, taking from its launch in September until February 2005 to make the complete journey. It was then on station from February until it was purposely crashed into the moon on September 3, 2006. The main mission of SMART-1 was surface imaging and detection of minerals on the surface. It was decided to crash the probe on the moon to simulate a meteor and expose elements buried under the surface.