AD 70 - Destruction of City of Jerusalem
An Army, led by Titus, son of current Roman leader, Vespasian, Credit: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arc_de_Triumph_copy.jpgfinally takes Jerusalem, and destroys it in the process. Titus would succeed to the throne in 79 AD upon his father’s death. This is during the First Jewish-Roman War, 66-73 AD. The fight for the city of Jerusalem had been at a stalemate for some time, but Titus and his assistants take steps to finish the battle. They take the city and it is destroyed, along with the Second Temple. The Second Temple was built to replace the first that had been destroyed when the Jews were taken into captivity and made slaves by Babylon.
1504 – Debut of David by Michelangelo
Between 1501 and 1504 Michelangelo creates the sculpture David, meant to represent King David of the Bible. The statue was originally part of project started many Credit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Michelangelos_David.jpgyears early, originally meant to be one of 12 sculptures of Old Testament figures. A couple of the pieces were started and finished. The block of marble for David was bought and transferred to the city of Florence. The marble had some rough work and shaping done to it, but then was stopped. The group in charge of the project decides to finish the project, because they have invested a lot of money in buying and transporting the block of marble. The finished piece weighed over 6 tons. Michelangelo is picked to finish the piece over the others bidding on the contract, including Leonardo di Vinci. He finishes the sculpture and unveils it on September 8, 1504.
1636 – Harvard College is Founded
Harvard College was formed in 1636 by the Massachusetts Legislature. Credit: Harvard College It is said to be the oldest institution of learning in the United States. It is also the oldest corporation in the United States. Since its inception it has become one of the world’s premiere universities. With the election of President Obama, it now means that eight presidents of the United States have graduated from Harvard. Close rival, Yale, has only had five presidents from their school. President Bush came from both schools.
1888 – Third Victim of Jack the Ripper Found
Annie Chapman is found murdered on September 8, 1888. It is later decided to be the work of Jack the Ripper, although that name is not coined until later. Annie Chapman had been associated with several different men, and worked occasionally as a prostitute to support herself and may have been a drinker.
1888 – The Football League forms in England
Football, or soccer, as it is known in the US, has been a sport on the rise, but the rules are not set. Professional Players were legalized in 1885 by the Football Association, and in 1888 The Football League was formed to give all teams in it a chance to have a formal schedule and a certain amount of games. This also allowed there to be a champion crowned. The first games were played on September 8, 1888.
1892 – Pledge of Allegiance Published
The Pledge of Allegiance is written in 1892 by a socialist Baptist Minister named Francis Bellamy. It is published on September 8, 1892 in The Youth’s Companion, It originally read,
"I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands, one nation,indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."
Bellamy felt that it was a pledge that could be used by any country. Originally, the oath originally has a salute with it. This went through several versions, until 1942 when the hand over the heart was formally adopted. Earlier versions resemble the Nazi salute, and were discarded.
The allegiance itself underwent several changes. In 1923 the word “Flag” was changed to “Flag of the United States”, and a year later “of America” was added. This was done to make sure immigrants would realize that their new loyalty should lie with their new country. In 1948, several people start pushing to add the words “Under God” to the pledge, citing President Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address as justification for the change. In 1954, President Eisenhower signs the new pledge into law. It reads today,
"I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."
1941 – Germans Start Siege of Leningrad
Germans cut off contact for the city on September 8, 1941, and the siege was not lifted until January 27, 1944. At 872 days, it is one of the longest in history. Exact casualties numbers are uncertain, but between one and four million Soviets died. At one point, food was a small amount of bread, made of flour and sawdust. Later, even that was unavailable.
1944 – V-2 Hits London
London is hit by a V-2 Rocket for the first time. Over 3,000 rockets in all would be launched, mostly at London and Antwerp. The V-2 is the predecessor of the modern rocket program. It was the first long-range combat-ballistic missile. After the war both the United States and the Soviet Union gather as much of the material, research, equipment, and people from the program as they could and took them back to their own countries to start their own rocketry programs.
1966 – Star Trek Premiere
The original Star Trek series premieres on September 8, 1966. Management cancels it during its third season due to low ratings. But there was so much protest that later more series were spun off in the Star Trek World. In all there would be six series, and eleven feature films.
1974 – President Ford pardons President Nixon
The Watergate Scandal surfaced in the early 1970s and concerned a break-in to the Democratic National Committee Headquarters. President Nixon’s administration was implicated in the cover-up, and the President’s involvement was questioned. President Nixon then resigned before impeachment proceedings in the House of Representatives over his involvement in the Watergate Scandal could be concluded, when he was informed there were enough votes to remove him from office.
President Ford, formerly Vice President Ford, pardoned President Nixon on September 8, 1974 for all crimes he may have committed at President. Some feel that the reason Ford lost the election is because of his pardon of President Nixon.