There are many things that you should know about the thyroid anatomy. It plays a vital role in the regulation of hormones in the body. At the earliest history of man’s quest in understanding the human body, the thyroid elicits a great deal of curiosity among scientists. The interest on the thyroid structure is first sparked in the Medieval Medical School of Salerno where a Salernitian surgeon made a text about the pharmacological and surgical cures for the thyroid gland. While some of it is not medically accurate, part of the study is carried out to be medically sound.
Overview of the Thyroid Anatomy
The thyroid gland is found at the anterior aspect of the neck, deep in the platysma and other neck muscles. Thyroid is the one of the largest gland of the body and it is highly vascularized composing of many arteries and veins. The spinal landmark of the thyroid gland is between at the fifth cervical vertebra and the first thoracic vertebra. The following are the main functions of the thyroid anatomy.
- Regulates body heat
- Regulates body energy use
- Regulates interaction of hormones
- Synthesize proteins
General Characteristics of the Thyroid Anatomy
The thyroid gland is composed of two lobes connected by a structure known as the isthmus overlying anteriorly at the 2nd
tracheal rings resembling an “H” shape. The thyroid anatomy is surrounded by a thin capsule. The capsule formed septae that divides the thyroid into lobules. The whole thyroid structure is supported by a dense connective tissue to the cricoid cartilage and the upper portion of the tracheal rings. The lobules of the thyroid are made up of follicles which is the basic unit of the thyroid. The follicles are surrounded by a layer of epithelium which contains iodothyroglobulin. The thyroid hormones are produced with the iodothyroglobulin as a precursor.
Blood Supply of the Thyroid
Almost all hormone-secreting organs are highly vascularized. The primary blood supply sources of anatomy of the thyroid are the upper and lower thyroid arteries which run along the fibrous capsule and the tracheal layer. The origin of the upper thyroid artery branches from the carotid artery. The lower thyroid artery originated from the subclavian artery.
Deoxygenated blood will drain at the three main veins of the thyroid gland. The venous plexus funnels the blood from the anterior aspect of the thyroid. The three veins are named as the inferior, medial, and superior thyroid veins.
Diseases of the Thyroid Gland
Thyroid disorders could be caused by a number of causative factors. It could be genetic, congenital anomaly or an effect of the environment. Almost all thyroid disorders could give rise to goiter. The most common disorders of the thyroid gland are hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and cancer.
Summary of Anatomy of the Thyroid Gland
Thyroid anatomy is very important for the body to maintain homeostasis. It is located at the anterior aspect of the trachea and from there performs its functions.
The blood supply of the thyroid originated from the carotid artery and the subclavian artery. All the structures of the thyroid anatomy are working together to provide equilibrium for the body.