The typical introduction to an interesting study


The article titled Teacher Immediacy and Classroom Communication Apprehension: A Cross-Cultural Investigation written by Qin Zhang examines how classroom communication is effected by teacher behaviors. More closely examined is classroom communication apprehension based on the teacher’s verbal and nonverbal immediacy behaviors. The article compared how teacher immediacy behaviors effected the classroom communication in a Chinese college classroom versus a US college classroom.  This article follows most of the writing rules stated in the textbook. The most prominent things found in the article were the following: Zhang included all three moves with most of the optional parts included. She utilized all the different types of citation styles. Lastly she used the technique of negative openings to stress gaps in the literature.

General Overview

The introduction for this article is fairly long compared to most other introductions in journal articles. It is roughly five pages long, with the whole journal article only being eleven pages long. The introduction gave a brief overview of Chinese and US classroom contexts, what classroom communication apprehension is, background information on teacher immediacy, and provided the hypothesis questions. There were no footnotes used neither in the introduction nor throughout the rest of the paper.


            The first section of the introduction consisted of move one because the author shows the general research area is important and then the author went on to review some items of previous research in the area. The first paragraph in the introduction gave an overview about what communication apprehension is and why it is important to study. Zhang then went on to review about ten other articles that talk about communication apprehension in the classroom. Zhang related the ten articles together and stated why they were important to mention for her research.

            The next section of the introduction introduced move two by indicating a gap in the previous research. Zhang showed there was not much research in the area of comparing how immediacy behaviors of teachers effect student communication in a Chinese classroom versus a US classroom. Zhang explained the past research flaws and began to state how she will fix these flaws. Zhang showed past research has only focused on US classrooms and has not expanded to other countries.

            The last two sections of the introduction was where move three resided. Zhang outlined the purpose of her present research, the value of her present research and listed her research questions and hypothesis for her study. Zhang did not announce any principle findings, and this is a common not to announce that in the introduction for communication.


            The word “investigate” is used very often throughout this paper. The title of the article also included the world “investigation”.  The use of summary words is very common throughout this article as well. The word “this” is used very often and the word “these” is only used in the introduction as well.


            The introduction of this article blends together very well together.  The introduction had a logical starting point and flowed nicely between parts to the ending of the introduction. There was clear connections between ideas that help the reader follow the text.


            All three of the citation styles were used in the introduction. The introduction had a few citations that were stated in the past. Zhang mostly referenced to single studies that are in the past. Zhang often cited authors by saying “Authors name (year) reported”. This is showing the researcher activity as an agent. Most of the citations used in the introduction were cited in the present. These references had no reference to researcher activity. Zhang simply stated the author’s name at the end of her statements in parenthesis.  The least common citation style used in the introduction was the present perfect. The author only stated one or two times the information “have been” or “has been”. Zhang did not use the researcher activity not as an agent very often.


            Zhang achieved centrality in the introduction by showing the area of her research is important. She claimed communication apprehension has been studied in instructional communication for the past three decades. Zhang also explained there has been compelling evidence” that has demonstrated there are differences in communication apprehension across cultures and she wants to expand on that theory.

Negative Openings

            There were a lot of negative opening sentences within move two in this introduction. Zhang stated, “Although little is known about the relationship between teacher immediacy and CCA…” at the end of the introduction.  Zhang only used the word “little” one time and never uses the word “few”. Instead she used words like “it is not know” or past studies have been “limited”. All these sentences consist of negative openings because she indicates there is a gap in the literature.


            Zhang followed the rules of writing introductions very closely. Differences did not occur within the introduction. Zhang’s purpose for writing this article was to inform the audience she found differences between communication apprehensions in students from the US versus students from China.  There was no need to change her writing style to something out of the ordinary to emphasize her findings.


            Zhang overall wrote a very effective introduction. She included all the necessary moves, including many of the optional parts of the moves. The only part of the moves she did not include was, in move three she did not state her principle findings and she did not indicate what the structure for the paper would be like. Within the moves she clearly claimed centrality by explaining importance of the study. Zhang used summary words throughout which allowed her paper to flow better. The entire introduction was organized well by a logical sequence that helped the reader follow along easily. All three types of citations were used, although the most common citation used was in the form of the present.  The way she pointed out gaps in the literature was by giving negative openings using words like “little” or the saying the previous literature was “limited”. Finally there were no differences in her writing style that strayed from the typical writing style for introductions.  Zhang touched upon all the important parts a typical introduction should have, but did not go above and beyond the norm.  This was a clear introduction that established the article’s research territory, the niche, and occupied the niche efficiently. 

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