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The Anatomy of the Eyes

By Edited Nov 15, 2015 0 0

The eyes are very important organs which are responsible for giving us the sense of sight. They serve to detect light from the environment and use them to produce clear and vivid images that can be recognized by the brain. The light is eventually converted into impulses right in the neurons.  The eyes is considered as an optical network or system made up of different parts that work hand in hand in order to effectively perform its normal function. Through the eyes, we are able to perform different movements and actions as we are given a clear view of our surroundings. Many important daily activities, or almost all of our physical activities are actually dependent on our vision.

The Parts of The Eyes

Here are some of the most important components of the camera-like structure in our body:

Aqueous Humor

The aqueous humor is known as the fluid like substance that can be found between the lens and the cornea. This water-like substance is produced from the ciliary body of the eye. This fluid is filled with nutrients needed by the lens and the cornea to be able to function properly. The space where this fluid can be found is called the anterior chamber.


The conjunctiva is known as the membrane that covers the eye together with its inner eyelids. It is actually described as a thin and transparent membrane made up of mucous producing cells that are used to provide much needed moisture and lubrication in the eye.  Conjunctiva also serves a significant role in preventing the body against infection.


The cornea can be described as a dome structure that can be found covering the front part of the eye.  It is described to be a clear lens that does not have any blood vessels in it. This is a very important part in forming the lens system of the eye. The cornea is known to be nourished by the aqueous humor and even by tears.


The lens of the eye is one of the most important parts responsible for producing vivid images. Just like a the ones in the camera, this lens adjusts in its own way behind the cornea to be able to achieve the proper focus of the images projected to the retina.


The iris is known to be the colored area of the eye. It comes in different colors and the most common ones are black and brown. In certain populations, especially among Caucasians, blue is definitely common as the color of the iris. The iris is described as a collection of small muscle fibers that can be found right behind the cornea and just in front of the lens. As a muscle, it functions by contracting and relaxing depending upon its response to light. It is responsible for controlling the pupil of the eye upon exposure to light.


The pupil of the eye is the hole that can be found right at the central part of the iris. This is the area where the light from the environment enters through the eye. The iris is the one responsible for controlling the size of this part of the eye depending upon the amount of light it is exposed to.


The retina of the eye is known as the film. This is very significant as it is the one responsible for turning the light rays into electrochemical impulses or signals that are sent to the brain for processing. The central part of the retina is known as the macula. The macula is used for the color and central vision while the sides of the retina are responsible for the peripheral vision. 


The sclera is known as the great white portion of the eye. It is described as a tough wall which keeps the shape of the eye. The sclera also serves as one of the main protections of the eye against pressure primarily caused by the fluid accumulating inside it.

 Vitreous Humor

The vitreous humor is known as the gel like substance that fills up the eye. The vitreous humor takes up most of the space inside the eye from the part of the lens up to the back.  The quality of the vitreous humor changes through time primarily because of aging.   The space where the vitreous humor can greatly be found is known as the vitreous cavity. This is actually found between the retina and the lens.

These are some of the most important parts of the eye that work together to promote normal vision. 


Common Eye Problems

There are a lot of common eye problems people should definitely be aware of so they can prevent themselves from getting them. Knowing the most common eye problems can also help people understand the most appropriate treatment methods for the said medical conditions.


Conjunctivitis is also known as pink eye and it is considered as one of the most common eye problems encountered by people. This eye problem involves the inflammation of the part of the eye known as the conjunctiva which serves to cover the white portion of the eye.

Most people may not be aware of the fact that conjunctivitis can be a very contagious disease and that is why it should be treated immediately upon detection.  From the name itself “Pink Eye,” this condition makes the eye appear pinkish or red in color. Aside from the redness of the eye, conjunctivitis can also cause symptoms like itchiness, blurring of vision, evident discharges from the eye, too much tearing and even sensitivity to light.


Another one of the most common eye problems experienced by people is what is known as astigmatism. Astigmatism is described as an eye problem that greatly affects the near vision primarily involving distance. When one is diagnosed to have astigmatism, he or she may see things as blurred and even distorted most of the time.  Another observable characteristic of a person with astigmatism is the fact that the person may feel truly tired after reading. Astigmatism is known to be caused by a change in the normal shape of the cornea as it turns to have an oblong form as compared to the normal circular shape.

Dry Eye Syndrome

Dry Eye Syndrome is also considered as one of the most common eye problems that can affect people. Dry Eye Syndrome is also known as keratoconjunctivitis and this is characterized by having a feeling of dry and itchy eyes.  From the name itself, the problem with this eye problem is the fact that the tear glands are unable to produce the right amount or quality of the tears necessary to prevent dryness of the eyes.

Aside from feelings of dryness and itching, a person diagnosed to have Dry Eye Syndrome is also known to experience weird body sensations and eye pain described to be sharp, stinging and even burning. It could also be observable that the person with keratoconjunctivitis may often have redness of the eyes. Aside from this, there could be an excessive tearing of the eyes together with a very disturbing blurring of one’s vision.

Conjunctivitis, Astigmatism and Dry Eye Syndrome are just some of the most common eye problems that are experienced by people. These problems must be addressed as early as possible so that further aggravation of the said conditions could be prevented. These conditions can lead to total damage in vision and that is why these most common eye problems should be given the most appropriate attention once diagnosed.



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