The Bizarre, the Wicked and the downright Crazy
By: J. Marlando
First of all, you need to be in at least average, good mental health to read this article but of course you might be pretty bazaar yourself and not know it—now that’s a danger for all of us, is it not?
Indeed, you might have behaviors, rituals and beliefs that have been placed in the goofball category at the National Unhinged Theorem Institute of Sociology otherwise known as N.U.T.S.
If you would like to become an honorary member of N.U.T.S. please send me $50.00 and I’ll send you a bumper sticker.
Before going further however, be forewarned: I may touch upon some issue that you hold sacred so if you’re touchy or in any way dull-minded or fanatical, stop reading here. You’ll be glad you did!
Now then, since I probably just cut my reading audience by at least 95%, the rest of us can continue on into our journey into the Bazaar where we might even meet the Wonderful Wizard of Ooze (yes, you read right: Ooze) along our way or get to ride a witch’s broom. We are in fact, headed into a universe where some people wear magic undies (they know who they are) but others are far more worthy than this of being given the N.U.T.S. Award but
In regard to the above, people have been dying for causes (and typically someone else’s) since the advent of what we’ve come to call, “Civilization.” One of civilizations greatest achievements was to build weapons with enough power to…well, destroy civilization. War itself is nuts of course: a great many human beings dying and killing for the power and wealth of a few in the guises of ideologies. Historically take Joan of Arc—because she was outspoken and had opinions that did not belong to the church, she was put on trial by the Church. She was just 19 at the time but nevertheless, she was condemned to die for heresy and was burned to death. Twenty five years later she was given a retrial which won her a ritual known as Rehabilitation. She was acquitted and finally ended up being made a saint. And again, we ask, how nuts is that?
Our entire human history is packed with bazaar human thought and action.
What about the Church’s demand for chastity? It seems to me if that’s what God wanted, he would have created us akin to mules instead of monkeys but what do I know?
What I do know is that while the church strongly advocated a denial of our sexual desires it obviously advocated prostitution at the same time: As Richards Zack’s tells us:
Pope Sixtus IV openly taxed prostitution
Pope Alexander VI rented out several buildings to be used as bordellos
Pope Julius II issued a papal bull on July 2, 1510 to prevent bordellos close to the papal palace, authorized the creation of bordellos in a section of Rome set aside for prostitution.
Pope Leo X and Clement VII confirmed that the bordello could continue on the condition that one fourth of the possessions of the prostitutes, upon death, would go to the convent of Santa Maria Magdalena.
There is so much “nutsabilia” in religions, however, and Catholicism certainly doesn’t have the exclusive on hypocrisy. The Puritans, for example, desired religious freedom which was the very reason they traveled to America. Once they got here however, they began persecuting all who didn’t or wouldn’t accept their Puritanism. Indeed, the Puritans were real nutcases and we’ll be talking about them again a little later.
There is just so much madness that can be covered in an article but it is my intent to share the “madness” that most entertains and baffles me. I hope that you enjoy the ride as well.
Origins of Our Kind
We should start at our beginning: according to some anthropologists and paleontologists the Neanderthals
In any case, it was once thought that Neanderthals were a part of the great chain event of modern man’s evolution but it is now realized that these hairy creatures were a species all of their own. Nevertheless they too were a different type of “human.” In fact, the evidence tells us that they had figured out fire, had a social order and family ties; great hunting skills, great weapons and tools. They also might have even developed superstition and have buried their dead with a concept of the spiritual, which implies subjective thinking. And so, they simply were not as dumb
Some say that the Neanderthals were killed-off by volcanoes, others because they couldn’t survive the Ice Age and yet others offer that the advanced Cro-Magnon did them in by vicious warring. I don’t agree with any of those theories and believe that that they simply melted into the Cro-Magnon heritage through interbreeding but produced offspring that could not reproduce because of the mixture of species. Hey, my guess is as good as anyone’s and anyway, the skulls of modern Cro-Magnons and Neanderthals are extremely different but the big, brutish Neanderthals had brains that were bigger than ours.
There is another common story of our origin as well.
In Genesis, God creates Adam and Eve
What happens is that Adam and Eve gain knowledge; they become self-aware! In fact, as soon as this happens they discover that they are naked and so they make aprons to hide themselves in the eyes of God.
This sounds a little far-fetched because we can assume that if God made our naked bodies, he had seen them before. However, there might well have been good reason for this. After all, they might not have been that good-looking couple we always imagined them to be:
Anyway, God is pretty upset with Adam and Eve for breaking his rules and throws them out of the Garden into a world of opposition. Nevertheless, they immediately settle down and start having children.
Their first born are named Able and Cain. They seem like ordinary boys growing up but Cain evidently had a quirk—he was jealous of his brother and ends up killing him. And, just think about it, we human beings have been killing each other ever since. That’s a topic for later, however. Right now, the question for you, the reader, is to decide which story you most favor. By majority vote we either evolved from a common ancestor with the apes and gorillas or, we all arrive from God’s creation of two rather slow and innocuous human beings who end up having problems with their kids.
The Advent of Religion
As a species we have always had a tendency to like ritual—we now know that the old cave drawings were about more than creating “sympathetic magic.” Most probably the world’s earliest shamans began their practices deep in those caves where they held symbolic dances and painted their spiritual experiences on the stone walls. There is something unique, however, to be observed when it comes from our ancient ancestor’s faith in the supernatural—it is certain that when God started out as an image—she was a woman!
Some 35,000 years ago there was already a figurine (which we have named Venus) that indicates a female deity. The little statue is of a woman, big breasted, with explicit genitals, an obvious symbol of fertility and the mysteries of birth; of life itself! Venus
We know that the greatest mystery was childbirth itself—For one thing, no one had the slightest idea where babies came from. Some say they believed women were impregnated by sitting to close to a camp fire and that was about the extent of their sex education. And so it was the “magic” of females that delivered life and nurtured it making the Mother Goddess the natural projection for a Creator.
As modernism advanced our kind began building temples devoted to a female deity and indeed, the ancient world was dotted with them—there were goddess shrines and figurines in most people’s dwellings. The Middle-Eastern Neolithic site of Jericho (now in Israel) was certainty goddess worshipping some 7,000 years ago. More recently, there have been found Neolithic sites on the plains of Anatolia (now modern Turkey) where goddess worshipping was prevalent.
I was unable to find pictures of any goddess temples going back beyond Classical Greek times but here are the remains of the Greek Temple of Love and Fertility, devoted to Aphrodite, the Temple of Artemis
No one knows exactly when all this changed and the warrior god took over the heavenly throne but many assume it was when it was at long last discovered that it was the male who impregnated the female. With all the mystery gone from the feminine mystic, brute strength quickly began to take over and the old goddess temples were eventually either torn down or renamed for the male gods. In any case, by the time of the more “advanced” civilizations of Sumer and Egypt the god/kings had arrived and women were already being looked at as property in their male dominated societies—and this was destined to get worse long before it was to get better.
With a male-god ruling the universal roost, male attributes were given him: indeed, there was a time in ancient Babylon believed that god in his heaven had his own bookkeepers and concubines. I am not quite sure when this was but I am guessing it was around the time of the Third Dynasty of Ur starting around 2,278 B.C.—this would have been at least 500 years before the birth of Moses and at least 200 years after the birth of Abraham.
Now then, talk about bazaar—all three Big-3 religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam trace their origins back to the same person—Abraham.
Abraham you may recall was the one who God commanded to place his son on the sacrificial altar and execute him. Abraham, being a blind follower, prepared to followed the order but God stopped him just before he plunged the knife into his son’s heart, saying that he was only being tested. After that, God orders him to become a foreskin collector and all is well.
The story is of course about absolute and blind obedience.
Anyway, as it turns out these three world religions—all starting with the faithful Abraham—are warring religions and for millenniums have most ritually been in vicious conflict. Most probably the old, American Hymn best sums up the religious sentiment of all three with the lyrics that says, “Praise the Lord but Pass the Ammunition.”
Multi-million deaths and who knows how much human suffering has been the result of organized religions—how cruel were the Crusades based on the drive for power and wealth in the guise of fighting for religious ideology. How greedy and cruel was the Inquisition?
When we review it all, we can only be left with the question—how really nuts are we as a species anyway?
Every religion, every religious sect is based on demagoguery and it has been since the first old god/kings claimed to have direct ties with the all, powerful invisible god. Do what you are told, they taught, and god will reward you…don't do what you are told and god will give you pain and suffering. It was on this “rock” the church was built! Call it the temple or mosque. The “church” always claims to know god’s rules; know what god values and doesn’t value, know what god punishes and rewards.
Here are some photos of the grand “houses” of religion
Here are some other photos that might have been taken on the same day
*At least the Mormons have programs to take care of their own.
Socio-religious ruling—and, by the way, “the church” still has enormous power over American politics and policies—every social more basically arrives from church dictation typically based on the most pompous statement of all, “God’s will.” And speaking of God’s will, here’s a sample of justice in Afghanistan
Chirstianity has caused some pretty bazaar and ignorant human action too: In Russia starting around the mid-1700s and continuing into the World War II years, we would have given the N.U.T.S. Award to a group called the White-doves. The men castrated their entire genital area and the women practiced breast and genital slashing. These nutcases had a slogan that said, “Sin is so profound that the only way to Heaven was through iron and fire.” And so they committed a kind of painful self-inflicted torture believing that god would bless them for it.
What started all this neurotic behavior was the story of Jesus’s suffering and the idea that “through suffering” there is salvation. This concept alone is nuts! Nevertheless, that particular Christian mythology is taken directly from the old Pagan stories of saviors. One example of this is about the ancient god, Mithra; a deity from an ancient Indo-Iranian mythology that rivaled Christianity for at least a short period of time.
Mithra was born on December 25th, traveling far and wide as a teacher—**his festivals were the winter solstice and the spring equinox or, in other words, Christmas and Easter. He was buried in a tomb, and later he arose and the people celebrated his resurrection yearly. There are just so many similar mythologies. Adonis the Syrian god was born of a virgin and other ancient tales include mythologies of Isis and Horus in Egypt, Dionysus for the Greeks and Ball for the Babylonians. Indeed, the tale of Mithra has been around since around 1600 B.C. but all these Savior Gods have much in common when it comes to their legends.
Once again, the Church enters. The “church” from earliest times has always preached the willingness to die or kill for it was favorable to God. Take today’s indoctrinated suicide bomber whose seduction into the faith probably started while he was still in the crib. Most Catholics and Mormons certainly brain-wash their children into their beliefs from childhood as do most others who belong to cults, clubs and gangs. In this regard, I remember meeting a four year old daughter of a racist. Her mind was already infested with hate for people she didn’t even know. The point here, however, is that a great many children are conditioned before they are capable of thinking for themselves. But, then again, governments and religions have never inspired people to think, only to follow.
Just think about it: The major teachings of Jesus were to live in love, compassion and forgiveness; to follow the “golden rule” and be the good Samarian. If Christians taught only this much to their children instead of all the dogmas and doctrines of their organizations, the world might have a chance of becoming cooperative? Instead, Christianity like the other two major players in the God Game spends its energy trying to rule private life while supporting the same old “us and them” world of hatefulness and separation. Perhaps you recall some years ago when the Protestant leader Jerry Falwell—a candidate for the N.U.T.S Award said: “Aids is not just God’s punishment for homosexuals—it is God’s punishment for the society that tolerates homosexuals.” There were actually a lot of people who applauded and…agreed. How bazaar is that?
It is actually more than pomposity to want to control other human beings, it is pure arrogance. Certainly we clearly see the arrogance in Hitler’s motives—known to be the most evil man of modern times—just remember, no followers, no Hitler so the N.U.T.S. award goes to the entire Nazi Party. But people have a way of being attracted to evil—the last known black lynching did not occur until 1952 in the U.S.—and here’s another group that deserves the N.U.T.S. Award
And speaking of human beings hanging other human beings, here is a fairly typical scene in today’s Iran where obviously there is little need for trees or scaffolds. Ah, the age of modern marvels!
With all this in mind, it is here that we encounter a new subject.
Crime and Punishment
Certainly societies couldn’t last very long without keeping reasonable law and order and the only alternative we have presently is a failed prison system. Failed, if we are to believe that prison is about rehabilitating fallen human beings—indeed, in many instances prisons merely serve to create (or train) evil-doers to become more efficient at their evil before their release. Nevertheless, the U.S. keeps approximately 2 million human beings locked up at all times and is, presently, known as the world’s “prison nation.” Quite an irony for a country that claims to be based on freedom and the pursuit of happiness!
In any case, entire societies can catch the virus of Nutmania: Singapore, for example, has a law against chewing gum. In Bangladesh any child 15 or older that cheats on a final examination can be sentenced to a jail term. Back in 1980 Canada made it against the law for consumers to pay with too much change (too many coins) making a purchase and while it isn’t enforced France still has a law forbidding women to wear pants. Well, when the law was made, bicycling and horseback riding by women in pants were tolerated. And speaking of non-enforced laws—at a wake in Massachusetts it is a criminal offense to eat more than three sandwiches and in Britain the stuffy Lord Cromwell inspired the law that deemed eating mince pie on Christmas Day against the law. He was actually against all festivals since he believed they promoted drunkenness and other Christian ethics and morals.
In the U.S.A. we have some real doozies on the books—far too many to mention here but here’s a taste of the home of individual freedom—In Alabama it is illegal to play dominoes on Sunday. In Tucson it is illegal for a woman to wear pants. In California the law has stated that a person must have a hunting license to set a mouse trap. In San Francisco it is illegal to beat a rung in front of your house. In Logan County Colorado it is illegal to kiss a woman while she is asleep. In Rehoboth, Delaware it is illegal to change in or out of a bathing suit in a public restroom. In Idaho it is a crime to ride a merry-go-round on a Sunday. In Waterville, Maine it is illegal to blow your nose in public. In Salem, Massachusetts it is illegal for even a married couple to sleep naked in a rented room. There’s a place in Missouri that makes it against the law to have a yard sale in your front yard. In Monroe, Utah, daylight must be seen between dancing couples. This goes on and on and not only by law-makers. In Massachusetts, the ***school board posted the following for their female teachers:
- Do not get married.
- Do not leave town at any time without permission of the school board.
- Do not keep company with men.
- Be home between the hours of 8 P.M. and 6 A.M.
The school board’s dominating list continues and while none of the absurd laws I’ve mentioned are in force today, the point is how arrogant law-makers, rule-makers and legislators can be. In our times, the Justice Department tells us that there are so many laws on the books that most of us could be sent to prison for doing something we weren’t even aware was against the law. And so I ask again, are we nut-case species or what?
We have a history of Nutmania, however: There is probably no one better than to demonstrate this than the crazy Puritans. The Puritans came to America in order to be able to practice their religion freely and then arrested and tortured others who didn’t believe in their fate. In fact, it was the Puritans who started the Indian Wars—they snuck through the dark of night and murdered sleeping Indian men, women and children…but why not, the Indians weren’t them, the Indians weren’t even Christian!
The Puritans were the major players in the New England Witch Hunts: Mostly women but men and even dogs were brutally murdered and tortured who were accused of being witches and therefore having pacts with the devil. One eight year old boy was pressed to death between two heavy stones that would not admit or deny that he was a warlock. Later these narrow human beings with Nazi mentalities who had acted in the name of religion, apologized for their cruel recklessness realizing their errors in judgment. But, as other lesser hypocrites have done, they placed the blame on old Satan himself. By 1711 the courts reversed around two-thirds of the witchcraft verdicts but the rest of them were not reversed until 1957…but then again, by then black people were just beginning to rise up for the right to ride where they wanted to ride on public buses, go to public schools and eat at public lunch counters. How far apart is burning witches and hanging others because of the color of their skin or murdering or declaring so-called Holy Wars on those who do not accept our way of life?
Hunger, much less starvation, is another form of human cruelty. While it is truth there are droughts, floods and other natural disasters that can cause these terrible conditions, mostly such suffering is unnecessary. Mostly conditions of stark poverty and other human suffering is NOT Mother Nature that is the cause behind the effect. It is governments…armies…and social systems that cause nearly all of human suffering.
While it is true we will always have richer and poorer in our world, devastating poverty is a socio-cultural construct; it is developed by the greed, the nepotism(s) and egocentricities of the powerful—most virtually no one on the planet needs to go to sleep hungry tonight—yet, a few millions will die before the sun sets in the morning because of lack of food, lack of shelter, lack of decent water to drink and/or lack of medical care. In our own country we have spent trillions on fighting a war but we ask if there had been no war, how much of that outrageous budget would have been spent on winning the so-called war on poverty? A few symbolic pennies perhaps but nothing more—our street people our hungry and our homeless are growing a growing population in our nation—topics that politicians do their best to avoid.
Crime and punishment unfolds all over the world but there are many crimes again humanity that are neglected in the name of “business as usual,” crimes that heartlessly permit terrible human suffering including the lack proper medical care, proper amounts of food, clean water to drink and decent shelters but also…equal justice.
The very poor are the very least protected by the laws of all lands—if a crime occurs in the wealthier parts of a city, town or providence, the authority quickly responds but even mass murder can occur in impoverished places—such as recent serial killings in India—where the police do not even make it a priority. And, it is well known that if a poor kid in the U.S. is arrested for the very same crime as a middle class kid, he is most apt to receive a stiffer sentence than the wealthier kid. And, if a kid happens to be rich, the chances are that he will simply be sentenced to his family’s care while the poor kid sits in lockup. This kind of justice prevails around our globe so really, what kind of people are we?
There is a historic debate about Joseph Stalin, a fellow human being but inhumane. The debate is—did he murder 20 million of his own people or is that a vast exaggeration. My question is, why does it matter? If he murdered one, five, ten or 20 million other human beings for his pleasure or their disobedience or whatever, he’s simply one more heartless, self-serving tyrant with a “my road or death row” attitude.
We have listed the world’s most notorious tyrants. Men like Caligula known also as the “pervert Caesar” There was the warrior ruler Genghis Khan but what about good, old Henry the VIII
The first Tsar of Russia Ivan the IV
In regard to all of this, there is an old saying that tells us that “power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely.”
****Philip Zimbardo, creator of the Stanford Prison Experiment puts this in prospective. I’ll give an overview here: Zimbardo had a prison environment built in the basement of Stanford with prison cells and guard offices and so forth. He then recruited students to volunteer to be guards and to volunteer to be inmates. This meant that the “prisoners” had to remain in lockup just as real prisoners do and “guards” would work on shifts just as happens in real prisons. And, as in real prisons, guards had absolute authority over the inmates.
Here’s what happened: In a very short period of time, some of the guards became arrogantly cruel and misused their power to humiliate and somewhat torture their prisoners. For one thing, they would make them lay vulnerably naked on the floor. What is interesting about this particular humiliation is that prisoners are often made to stand or sit naked as a form of punishment. The all-mighty guards and prison officials not only deem prisoners absolutely subordinate by doing this but gain some sort of sexual gratification on one level of consciousness or another. I know of no photograph that demonstrates this as well as the prisoner abuse at Abu Chraib prison in Iraq.
In any case, the Stanford experiment discovered that without any doubt and with few exceptions, power corrupts. We witness this with government employees and law enforcement just as we witness it with top-dog drug bosses and other gangsters—at bottom line it is the “bully syndrome” with devastating results in most instances. Perhaps John Dean
In terms of cruelty the Chinese are extremely expert at it. Their torture techniques include—electric shock, savage beatings, forced abortions and hanging from two thumbs; force-feeding with urine and force-feeding with feces; dog bites, snake bites and yes, impaling fingernails and toenails with bamboo sticks. When you stop and actually think about it, you have to ask what kind of a species are we anyhow?
As I have said many times, nearly every school kid has learned something of the valor and daring of the world conqueror, Alexander the so-called Great, but historians fail to tell us the stories of his victims; of the death, pain and sorrow he left in his wake.
In looking at ourselves as a warring-people, even our “holy books” advocates brute force and mass murder. In our Bible for example, God tells Moses to “raise an army” and attack the cities of Midian. He gathers 12,000 soldiers and follows the instruction—His soldiers quickly kill off the kings, load up with the spoils of their victories and return to their leader no doubt seeking accolades. Moses, however, is angered. He asks his generals why they have kept the Midian women alive. He sends his armies back to kill every man, boy and woman…who has had intercourse but permits the soldiers to keep all the young girls and virgins for themselves. The soldiers attacked the Midians again and this time returned with: 675,000 sheep and goats, 72,000 cattle, 61,000 donkeys and 32,000 virgins. God and Moses we can assume were pleased.
Christopher Columbus is another example of exercising greed in the guises of patriotism and duty. While he never actually set foot on mainland America as we know it today, he did reach the Caribbean—islands of a friendly, happy and…peaceful people—whom he quickly enslaved and murdered through warfare, forced labor and European diseases…all to quench his thirst for…gold.
Cruelty is no stranger to so-called civilization, however—across the world, the British, historically known for their cruelty practically wiped out the Tasmanians in order to colonize the island of Tasmania. (Today there is debate about the genetic purity of a few surviving Tasmanian aborigines whose ancestors manage to escape the genocidal invasion by the island’s conquerors.
When we think of genocides most everyone immediately thinks of Hitler and the Nazis—nevertheless, crimes against humanity continue into our own times: In the Sudan Darfur region, for example, the Janjaweed militia, an Arabic group supported by the Sudanese government is simply “eliminating” the regions black tribes.
But before we separate ourselves from the heartless heathen, when Columbus sailed there were an estimated 10 to 15 million human beings—called Indians—living in the Americas. Our European brothers would eventually kill off 90% of them, as the historian, Kenneth C. Davis states, “all in the name of progress, civilization and Christianity.”
One cannot talk about genocide, however, without mentioning Hitler
How nuts is that?
This narrative has been written in the summer of 2012—the new millennium most virtually began with the destruction of the World Trade Center, where around 3,000 victims died not counting the 19 hijackers who turned commercial jets into weapons of mass destruction in the name of religious and political ideologies and in the name of the same warrior god that we are told commanded Moses to attack the Midians.
Nevertheless we remain at the start of a 1000 year trek into the future. As a species we can actually choose to live in peace and strive toward a new cooperation or simply repeat our human history of greed, cruelty and ignorance; of wars upon wars in the quests of power and wealth.
We are a world ruled by social-Darwinists. Our so-called civilized societies and their systems are built upon Darwinistic propositions wherein law takes precedence over justice, peace is sought through war and greed prevails as the cornerstone of our humanism. Millions upon millions of human beings are hungry and/or starving and enduring hellish conditions worldwide because of the greed of those in power over them; the elite few of each culture that manipulate economies and human life itself.
It is a healthy thing for some to build greater fortunes than others. After all, we have already seen how communism and socialism grows tighter and more powerful elite systems than free enterprise does. Yet, we need to construct a greater human resource system; a system that actually strives to eliminate (stark) poverty and calloused political policies...worldwide.
We now know that planet earth is a mere pin drop on the Universe’s map; a tiny island in the sky that supports life; life in and of itself is a blessing to behold; an experience to celebrate and not to be endured; a place to love and not to hate, a place to be tolerant and understanding; to be compassionate and, beyond all else, kind.
What we need to do first—as a species—is to step out of our centers; to refuse the concept that conjures up an “us and them.” We need to grasp that we are all the same and our differences are only apparent: Indeed, the beggar on the street and passerby in the limousine is you…only in another circumstance. When you permit yourself to understand this, you most simply begin to love others…yes, as yourself.
It is not Christianity or any other religious cult that will ever make the world a safer, more secure and happy place. For one thing, religions all persist in their own centers no less than governments do and those outside the centers are always regarded as…them.
But how do we better our world? I believe that Gandhi had the only solution. He told us that we (each individual) must become the changes that we desire for the world. How can we expect mindless bureaucracies and institutions to live loving principles when we are so often treating our neighbors and/or members of our own families unloving?
As far as the rule of society goes, we need to protest modern destructuralism. We can describe “Modern Destructuralism” as anything that overburdens the individuals for the sake of the institution or any other collective—society too, after all, is merely a collection of individuals.
We need to open our minds and hearts to others; if you will, to practice Christ Realization no matter what organization we are members of or what label we give ourselves. This begins by taking him off the sacrificial altar and placing him on a pedestal of humaneness; of loving the world and all that is in it.
If you are wondering how you can obtain Christ Realization you need only go within…you can start by simply being kind to someone today; kindness always takes us directly into the world of self in reflection of the other. Remember too, you do not have to be a Christian to practice Christ consciousness anymore than you have to be a Buddhist to practice Buddha consciousness.
I am not advocating Christianity by the way. Indeed, I do not advocate totalitarianism in any of its guises (including organized religion). What I do advocate is a reconstruction of human togetherness and cooperation.
We can only begin…with ourselves. After all, at least in metaphor, the inmates have been running the asylum long enough!
* Eisler, Riane * The Chalice & The Blade *Perennial Library
**Ziin, Howard *A Pe4ople's Hisdtory of the Unioted States
***Ghiglier P. Michael*The Dark Side of Man *Perseus Books
****Z acks, Richard*An Underground Education*Dooubleday