The facts leading to the collapse of the USSR
The leaders of the Soviet Union
The collapse of the Russian government during the early part of the 1900s, partially caused by the Bolsheviks, meaning "majority men", brought about the existence of theUnion of Soviet Socialist Republics – The Soviet Union. Then the time came for the power struggle in which Nikolai Lenin, the head of the Bolsheviks, became premier of the Soviet Russia. He then took on the lead to abolish Russia's social and economic system completely. Following this, the newly-established government of the proletariat took over the ownership of all the land and industry. The intention of Lenin to impose the doctrines of Karl Marx all over the land came as a shock and a cause for bewilderment for most of the people that civil war broke out during the year 1918. The whole country was in total distress in terms of economy.
To fully impose communism, rapid changes had to be made including the changing of the cultural and political spheres of the country. Some of these changes resulted indirectly to famine and widespread diseases, and coupled with the diversified thinking of the Russian populace, Lenin's regime met difficulty in achieving its governmental goals. These even resulted to the infamous spurges authored by Joseph Stalin. These problems continued to trouble different Soviet leaders after Lenin's death, from Stalin to Gorbachev, and made it difficult to reform the Soviet system.
To overcome these difficulties, different policies were conceived by the different leaders, some of these measures launched and initiated were even contrary to the goal of establishing total communism across the land. One was the implementation by Lenin of New Economic Policy which allowed individuals to engage in partial capitalist activities, and another was Nikita Khrushchev's de-Stalinization in which it aimed to encourage liberalism and slowly replacing hard-line Stalinist leaders.
Economically, the value of money was low and living was hard. After Stalin's death, his successor Nikita Khrushchev implemented reform policies to combat the economic setbacks pervading the country. Some of these were the giving importance to agriculture and initiating housing projects to house millions to house millions of Russian homeless. He even implemented peace propagandas like abolishing the Cominform and peaceful co-existence with Russia's neighbors and the West. But political troubles beset his government such as the Cuban Missile Crisis and the deterioration of Russian-Chinese relations which led to boundary clashes between the two countries.
Mikhail Gorbachev's term as the last leader of the Soviet Union saw the first hints of the liberalization of Russia with his imposition of the Glasnost program which gave way for individuals to own private businesses, and gave more liberality to the freedom of speech. Gorbachev also introduced radical reforms, with the thought of ending Russia's economic and political problems, but these were opposed by harsh criticisms, especially by Boris Yeltsin. Despite this, Gorbachev made an effort to reconcile the clashing groups of the reformists and the conservatives.
The opposing views of these two groups and the criticisms against each other's way of running the government would be among the reasons why it was hard to reform theSoviet Union into a new Russia at that time following the doctrines of Marxism.
Add to these the subtle entry of capitalist ideas into the heart of Russia, the Soviet Union eventually collapsed.