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History of Hungary

By Edited Apr 8, 2016 1 0

The country Hungary is in Central Europe. It has a very long and turbulent history with many invasions and occupations. Eventual it became a very powerful kingdom and empire.

Hungary is a Central European country. Where Hungary is today were the Roman provinces Pannonia and Dacia. During the 5th and 6th century they were invaded by Germanic tribes. Then again conquered by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charlemagne.

In 896, the Holy Roman Emperor, Arnulf appointed the family Arpad to rule the region. The family came from the Magyar tribe. The Magyar migrated from Russia and towards the end of the Middle Ages the Magyar became a very strong and powerful kingdom.

The Mongolian invasion in 1241 almost destroyed the Magyar population. The Arpad line started to die out and by the 14th century the crown passed from one to the other. They were all foreign rulers.

The spreading of the Ottoman Empire also began to threaten this country. When Sigismund, King of Hungary, defeated by the Turks at the Battle of Nicopolis the danger of an invasion was even greater.

In 1456, the Turks were defeated at Belgrade and peace returned.

In 1526 the Hungarian King Louis II killed in battle and this led to the partition of Hungary between the Habsburgs and the Ottomans.

In 1711 the country came under the rule of the Habsburgs and became the Austro-Hungarian Empire till 1919. The Empire was a Dual Monarchy. The alliance of the Magyars Austrian Germans was against the Slav people. During this time, revolutionaries with the leader Lajos Kossuth tried to set up a Hungarian republic in 1848 but was defeated by the Austrians.

The defeat in the First World War provoked a revolution in Hungary and then independence. First Hungary became a democratic republic and then, only for short while, a communist regime under Bela Kun. Between 1920 and 1944 Hungary was governed by Nikolaus Horthy who was a dictator.

In the Second World War Hungary allied with Italy and Japan and was defeated. From 1946 the Soviet Union ruled Hungary and a communist one-party system was set up. In 1956 an Hungarian Uprising was to end the Soviet Domination but was defeated.

It took till 1988 and a demonstration in Budapest to successfully end the domination and restore a multi-party politics. The election in 1990 brought MDP - Hungarian Democratic Forum - to power. When the Soviet bloc fell Hungary also lost trade and it brought unemployment.

Their problems increased with refugees from Romania and Transylvania and adding to that the civil war in the Balkan.

In 1990 Hungary introduced reforms to revive the economy and entered a free-market system. Privatisation of companies and an increase of foreign investment did not prevent further economic recession.

May 1994 the election was won by the coalition of Gyala Horn of the Hungarian Socialist Party and by 1995 a slight economic growth began to show.



Aug 29, 2010 9:27am
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