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The Immune System And Its Segments: The Body's Armour Against Infections

By Edited Dec 26, 2015 0 0

The Immune system

If you are wondering how your body is able to fight all the external threats to its homeostasis, the answer is actually a group of organs and specialized cells working together for efficient defence known as the Immune System. The Immune System is described to be the protective barrier of the body that fights off any organism or harmful substance that causes much of the risk to the over-all health and well-being of the body. Without the Immune System, the body will be left defenceless against pathogens or harmful organisms from the environment thus leading it to enter into a state of illness or disease.

What Is The Immune System?

Body's defence system

The Immune System also known as the defence system of the body is considered to be divided into three different types or segments. These are known as the innate non-specialised, innate specialised and lastly the adaptive specialised. These three segments are essential to keep the strength of the Immune System in battling different kinds of health threats and risks.

The Three Segments Of The Immune System And Their Respective Parts

Innate non-specialised segment

First of all, the innate non-specialised segment or part of the immune system is responsible for the general defences of the body against any threat to it. They have different capacities to fight external threats which can be evident in the following situations. One example is the condition when the respiratory system is clogged with mucus. When this happens, the body is more prone to harbour microorganisms primarily bacteria. This is because the mucus prevents the muco-ciliary escalator from performing its normal functions thus you are led to having more complications and lung infections.

Next example would be the threat brought about by smoke from cigarettes. This can cause the cilia to be impaired in its functioning and thus the non-specialised segment part of the immune system becomes inactive.

An example for men would be the normal enlargement of the prostate gland as they grow older which inhibits their ability to completely empty their bladder after they are able to urinate. If this happens, there will be a great amount of residual urine in the excretory system. This can increase the incidence of the fresh urine being infected by the residual urine which can already contain a great amount of microorganisms. In this case, there can be an increased risk for having urinary tract infections.

Another example involves the accidental destruction of the normal flora that can be found in different parts of the body. The accidental destruction happens when you tend to use antibiotics that are known to be broad spectrum which means that they have the tendency to kill or destroy different kinds of microorganisms that they can encounter, even those good bacteria which can be very helpful for the body. If this happens, there will be no more enough good bacteria that can fight pathogenic microorganisms making the body more prone to infection and diseases. An example of this condition is the use of broad spectrum antibiotics in candida infections. The good bacteria in sensitive parts of the body can be destroyed and when that happens thrush can form primarily in the vagina. Certain medications can also alter the conditions of the body which makes it less conducive for the good bacteria to thrive. For example, contraceptive pills can actually alter the pH of the vagina and kill the good bacteria in such area, leading to the formation of thrush once again.

Last of the examples of the innate non-specialised segment of the Immune System includes having severe burns which can make the body more prone to infection. The skin is very essential as it is considered to be the greatest barrier against pathogens. If this is damaged, as in the case of burns, you could be greatly prone to infections.

Innate specialised immune system
The second segment of the Immune System is the innate specialised immune system which includes different cells and molecules that primarily fight any kind of infection. They are called specialised because unlike the non-specialised defences, they only have one main function in the body and that is to fight infection. The cells that are a part of the innate specialised immune system are the neutrophils which are known to be the most abundant part of the white blood cells, the macrophages or what is known to be the largest cells that engulf pathogens, the eosinophils, the basophils and the mast cells. Together with these cells are the molecules which include the lysozymes, the complement and the lectins which also support the body in its fight against infections. These are also supported by the primary mediators when it comes to the body’s inflammatory response. These include histamines which are the one responsible for the allergic response of the body, the leukotrienes which are associated with asthma, prostaglandins which are associated with pain and lastly the platelet activating factor which are associated with bleeding control. These are all considered to be all parts of the innate specialised segment of the Immune System.

Adaptive immune system
The last segment of the Immune System is the adaptive immune system. This segment includes the B-lymphocytes, the T-lymphocytes and the Null lymphocytes. This can also involve the helper T cells and the killer cells which are very responsive when it comes to detecting and fighting pathogens that might enter and threaten the body’s defences.

As you can see, there are really a lot of components or parts of the Immune System. Each part no matter how big or small it may be plays a very significant role in the body’s defences against any kinds of microorganisms or pathogens. You can also see that the Immune System, from its segments, forms a very strong and effective defence against any threat to the body’s over-all normal functioning. Like soldiers forming an unbeatable army, every cell, molecule and organ that are parts of the Immune System work hand in hand to develop a very strong barrier that somehow serves as a metal shield around the body against anything that might cause any risk to harm to its health and well-being.



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