The Krakatoa volcano was a series of volcanic islands made completely from lava, located in the Sunda Strait between the Islands of Java and Sumatra in Indonesia. Krakatoa consisted of three main islands; Lang, Panjang, and Verlaten. In total there is over 130 active volcanoes in Indonesia, with the Krakatoa volcano being one of the most famous, mainly from its violent history. Krakatoa is also known as Anak Krakatau or "Child Of Karkatoa".
Krakatoa became Anak Krakatau after the massive eruption in 1883 that completely destroyed the volcano. It is now 4 seperate islands that have taken over 100 years to naturally rebuild themselves.
Anak Krakatua is located directly above the Indo-Australian plate that is subducting under the Eurasian plate.Credit: Flickr.com - anoldent
Although the Krakatoa volcano has been active since around 416 AD, the eruption in 1883 is the main fixture in it's long history. On August 27th 1883, four large volcanic explosions completely destroyed the islands of Krakatoa.
The explosions were heard over 3,500 km's (2,200 mi) away in Perth, Australia. Recordings show that the shockwave from the explosions reverberated around the earth 7 times, along with ash being shot up 80 km (50 mi) into the air. Estimates compare the explosion to the equivalent force of 200 megatons of TNT. The Krakatoa volcano explosion of 1883 is the fifth largest in recorded history.
The resulting tsunami, pyroclastic flow, lava flow, and volcanic ash cloud killed 36,417 people, but some sources have put the death toll at over 120,000 and ultimately destroyed over 160 villages along the coast of Java and Sumatra.Credit: WikiMedia Commons - Flydime
Global temperatures fell an average 1.2 degrees celsius in the year following the massive eruption and resulting explosion.
The Krakatoa volcano began rebuilding itself from the ocean floor in 1927, and reached the ocean surface in 1952. The new cone is over 400 feet (120 m) high, and is known now as Anak Krakatoa, or "Child Of Krakatoa".
In 1980, Anak Krakatoa officially became a national Indonesian park, known as Ujung Kulon National Park.
The Krakatoa volcano island grows an average 5 inches (13 cm) per week, or 6.8 meters per year. The volcano is considered active, with the last large eruption occurring in 1994, and a smaller eruption in April 2008.
Since 2008, many small eruptions and small lava flows have been occuring frequently.
Despite the island being completely formed by lava, volcanic ash and soil, Anak Krakatau is the home to over 475 species of plants and various animals. These animals include, birds, bats, reptiles, and some mammals.Credit: Flickr.com - Lip Kee