The 1st Irish Revolutionist: Theobald Wolf Tone - 1763 - 1798.
Na hEireann Eire agus Arans now, known as: The Republic of Ireland-Europe has long been in the struggle for freedom, independence with 1st known civilisation, established in written books, by the arrival of "The Celts in early 3rd Century. The data based in Ireland's Na hEireann Eire agus Arans-Europe's history is still there in the keeping of the Culture, Language, Arts, History and Treasured Histrionically Markings places. From old Celt-Gaelic to what is new to Ireland and "progressing in Irish". The Irish and its history can sometimes get lost or hidden in what is the Cities especially Capitols from then to now. The makings of old though, still remain the ancients of old.
In Example (I.E.):
County Meath, Books of Kells Celtic Writings and Drawings telling the History then.
Tara Hill, Hostage Hill and Soldiers Hills that hold the remains of Celt and Saxon Bones of Ancient marking, The 1st stand of Celts and Galileans (Gaelic) together against the Saxon Invasion.
Bull Island, where Brien Boru and his Warriors sailed in and out of Dollymount Strand to where, streets are named after him in Dublin 3 and Clontarf Castle to mark his dwelling placement then.
The Blarney Stone and Blarney Castle for those of Scottish Celts and Galileans that settled and dwelled there and today a visiting place and historical marking place still.
All of the above and many more is what in good invitation of the Gaelic Civilisation were welcomed and accepted that built our culture and strength so as today and as more commonly known before in massive popularity "The Irish in Ireland with Irish Eyes that spoke where no words passed any in conversation as they were first discovered in books written by the 1st Celts landing when they sailed to Emerald Isle: Eire (Ireland).
All of the above mentioned are today in Irish and World History pages for they followed on to fight still, for freedom. The history and writings are kept in history pages of books and learning in Irish Education still, today 20th Century and 10 from when the Galileans began to write their history down with the Celts.
This article is about, Southerner: "Wolfe Tone" the 1st to band and establish with his right hand man "Secretary Napper Tandy "The United Irishmen 1791". This then, lead to the establishment of others in the Northern Parts of Ireland, the Northern: "The Orange Order 1795". These membership clubs were kept in membership with members paying their fees for the up keep of those and their meeting places which, were kept and never forgotten by the next, "Robert Emmet" and "Padraig Pearse".
Hence, when Eamon Ceannt and the Irish soldiers of 1st World War took arms up in battle against the British after fighting in WWI. There were those that stayed at home while WWI was taking place and fighting a Revolution of their own. The Irish on the home fronts were: "The Men and Women of Ireland" that, remained firm, of "The Irish Brother Hood of Men" while, their soldiers of weapons of Irish, Catholic and Protestant fought in WWI.
The fighting Irish of soldiers and home fronts is what brought our National Flag to fly high on the British built buildings. In today's time are: "Dáil Éireann", "President's Home and Office". "An Garda Siochana headquarters" and "The General Post Office of Ireland-Europe (The G.P.O.)" and all others buildings of past: "Dublin Castle" and of this century and still building today 2010.
It all started with Theobald Wolfe Tone.
"The United Irishmen" and "The Orange Order" in 1916's agreement of 26 Counties returned back to Ireland and Its People is why it is: "Our Tri-Colour National Flag of: Green, White and Orange" and still to this day. This is where the story begins:
Theobald Wolf Tone was born in Dublin June 20th 1763. His parents address at the time and the house he was born into is on Bride Street Dublin Ireland. The house on Bride Street was of the commodious House type class then (Middle Class in Income). The Tones, Peter and Margaret Tone were prosperous people. Theobald Wolfe Tone was Baptized @ Saint Mary's Church. Now known As: Wolfe Tone Street, Dublin 1, Republic of Ireland-Europe (The Church). Then they were known to be of: 44 Stafford Street Dublin Ireland.
The Tone's ancestry trace is of French roots of France. The Tone's of France then moved to England to where they arrived in Ireland in the early 17th Century.
Theobald Wolfe Tone's Father "Peter" family and farm were from Clane Co. Kildare, Ireland. The family estate and farm was on the titled estates of "The Wolfe's" who had their Mansion House at "Blackhall" near Clane, Co. Kildare, Ireland. The Tones had regular business and in good contact with The Wolfes. It was at The Wolfes Mansion House "Blackhall" that, Peter met Margaret. Margaret, born and raised a Catholic worked in the household of "The Wolfes" at "Blackhall Mansion House". Margaret Lamport was assistant to "Lady Wolfe".
Theobald Wolfe Tone's Grandfather farmed the 200 acres of freehold land near Clane, Co. Kildare, Ireland till, 1766, where he died in a farming accident. He fell off one of his stack of corn to his death. The farm then, went over to his Son, "Peter". In, 1771, Margaret Lamport, converted to The Church of Ireland and married Peter Tone. On the birth of their 1st born, Son, Margaret and Peter named their 1st born: "Theobald Wolfe Tone" after the young Squire of the Estate of: "Theobald Wolfe".
The Genealogical Trace of the 5 born that survived childhood death of Peter and Margaret Tone are as follows:
Theobald Wolfe Tone, born 1763.
William Tone, born 1764.
Matthew Tone, born 1771.
Mary Tone, born 1774.
Arthur Tone, born 1782.
"Margaret Lamport-Tone" gave, birth to a total of "16 children" for "Peter Tone her Husband". Only 5 survived to adulthood due to the killer in "Tuberculosis" back then, in the 17th century Ireland.
A brief background of the 4 other siblings of Theobald Wolfe Tone is as follows:
William, born 1764, ran away at the age of 16 years and joined "The East Indian Company". He was killed in battle in India in 1802.
Matthew, born 1771, did as Wolfe Tone his brother did went to America. He also went to The West Indies and then to France. He joined up with the French Army of "Napoleon" and fought against England. He was captured when the French landed in Ireland in 1797, court marshalled and "Hanged for Treason".
Mary, born 1774, went also with Wolfe Tone on his first visit to America in 1795. On the return voyage she met a Swiss merchant. She married him in Hamburg, Germany. She died in Santo Domingo, while still a young family married woman.
Arthur, born 1782, went to sea at the age of 12 years old. He became an Officer of The Dutch Navy. He then went to America and there joined up with The American Navy. Arthur Tone's traces from when he joined The American Navy of not of records kept here in Irish listings of what is of his eldest brother: Theobald Wolfe Tone. Arthur's genealogical trace is unknown yet, perhaps, "The United States Armed Forces of The Navy" can only say or have family listings if recorded beside his of descendents of "Arthur Tone, born, 1782" as, with The Dutch Navy of "The Netherlands" today.
Theobald Wolfe Tone, born and raised in Dublin Ireland was an educated man to the standard of Education in Ireland then, "Trinity College Dublin 2, Ireland". Wolfe Tone through out his educational years was known to the system for non too perfect attendance. He held a great interest in his country and most of the systematic way of the Military in Ireland and others elsewhere. It was while attending Trinity College that he met "Matilda Witherington". Matilda lived on Grafton Street Dublin 2, Ireland. Matilda was 15 years of age when she met Wolfe Tone. Within months of their 1st meeting, in July 1785, they eloped and were married in "Saint Ann's Church" on Dawson Street, Dublin 2, Ireland.
Matilda Witherington-Tone, lived at Wolfe Tone's Father's home, in County Kildare, Ireland, while, Wolfe Tone finished his education with Trinity. He graduated the following year of the year they were married 1786.
Matilda Tone gave birth to 4 children in the years of 1786 - 1793. Only one of the 4 children Matilda born survived to adulthood. His name was "William". After Wolfe Tone graduated from Trinity College he spent close to 2 years in London, England, studying for "The Bar (Law)" from Jan 1787 - Dec 1788. In this time of his studying in England he did not return home to visit. Theobald Wolfe Tone did qualify as "Bachelor of Law". He became a member of "The Bar" on 4th of May 1789.
Wolfe Tones interests turned to Politics and began writing pamphlets on Politics. In this time period of Ireland there were two political parties, "The Tories" and "The Whigs". As Ireland was under rule of Kings Crown of England, "The Irish Parliament" was placed in the hands of "The Lord Lieutenant" by appointment of "The Kings Representation in Ireland".
Theobald Wolfe Tone throughout his life kept a diary of his and along with his diary and pamphlets his Son "William Wolfe Tone" later complied and edited his Father's "Theobald Wolfe Tone's Life".
Of those in Theobald Wolfe Tones life the following pamphlets were published:
1st pamphlet Published: review of: "The Conduct of Administration During The Last Session of Parliament", was published in Dublin, April, 1790, was Signed: "An Independent Irish Whig". This title coming from his own political view with education as been of: "Native Irish Upbringing" and such limited choice for an Irishman to be in political debate with just the "Kings Crown of England" representations. He neither liked "The Tories" and found "The Whigs" too radical. See: Wolfe Tone's Writings of "The Dissenters and The Catholic's" in his Memoirs, Complied and Edited by: Son "William Wolfe Tone". The class distinction between The Dissenters of Anglican and The Irish of Catholics gives the sad state of affairs for the Irish in Ireland and Government Parliament then in Ireland.
2nd pamphlet Published of 1790-1791 was of: "Spanish War" showing his interest in Military and its ways. An Enquiry on How Far Ireland is Bound to Embark on The Impending Contest on The Side of Great Britain.
The 1st Published pamphlet of Political writing got more attention than his military writings and opinion on the Embarking of having Ireland as Allie and country to England. It was the Northern Native Born Irish that took keen interest in his first published pamphlets. The Northern Whigs reprinted it and used it for debate and gaining election better seating with Parliament England.
October 1791, "The Formation of The Society of United Irishmen". This been of both North and South in Ireland.
Wolfe Tone met Thomas Russell of County Cork in Dublin, 1790. At the time Thomas Russell was on "Half Pay" from the English Army. He was 23 years of age at the time of meeting Wolfe Tone. They had similar or same interest in the Political and Military views for Reforming Ireland from its then present state. The two Nationalist became very close in meeting and hence, became very good friends. It was then in 1791, that Theobald Wolfe Tone and Thomas Russell formed "The United Irishmen".
However, Thomas was imprisoned from 1791 - 1802, as still on "Half Pay" with "The English Army" and therefore all his actions or membership would have to be approved by: "The English Army and Kings Crown Parliament". Yet, still and with Wolfe Tone and Founder with him of "The Society of United Irishmen". On his release in 1801, Thomas Russell took place in "The Abortive Rising 1802". Thomas was again imprisoned and then later "Hanged for Treason" by the Crown of England.
In "Wolfe Tone's Journal", edited by his Son "William Wolfe Tone", Wolfe Tone speaks of his lost of his good friend Thomas Russell in depth from the point of view of the Irish in Ireland and suppressed because of Faith, Belief and Nationality. He also speaks of the love of a friend deeply missed by his friend and founder with him of "The United Irishmen".
1790 -1791 The Years of Forming Unity within, Ireland North and South in Ireland.
"The United Irishmen of Green (Southern) and Orange (Northern) of First Names and Founders are as follows:
Theobald Wolfe Tone (Dublin)
Thomas Russell (Dublin)
Samuel Neilson (Belfast)
Henry Joy McCracken (Belfast)
Leonard McNally (Belfast)
Hamilton Rowan (Belfast and then he went and moved to join in with the Dublin Section)
Napper Tandy (Secretary).
The meeting place for "The United Irishmen" was held at "Tailors Hall in Belfast". It became Wolfe Tone's Second Home. It later on in time formed from the Dublin section of "The United Irishmen" to the "The Brotherhood of Men" on "Parnell Square, Dublin 1, Ireland".
3rd Published pamphlet of August 1791 was considered the most important one on politics for the Irish in Politics. "An Argument on Behalf of: The Catholics of Ireland".
1792 Theobald Wolfe Tone is Secretary of: "The Catholic Committee".
1793 "French Declaration of Independence". King Louis XVI is "Excecuted" on Jan 21st 1793.
1794 in April, Wolfe Tone is captured by the Crown of England under suspect for "Treason".
England is still under conflict from France with Napoleon's Army. Napoleon's Army is swiftly sweeping across Europe with the Napoleon concept of what is of country is 1st to be seen as head of country where then, Generals rule in war and politics. He been leader of and is: "Napoleon's Army". For others in country to allow Conquer Napoleon to be while of their heads of culture and nation to be 1st in representation, is sweeping across Continental Europe then.
The Crown of England is been threatened by the rule of each with its Conquest of its Country with then Conqueror Napoleon of France. For "The Declaration of Independence" is one that is carried with the French and The Royals of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland are in jeopardy. Napoleon's concepts of joining to fight with him to bring what, is of the country he invades, to then have one of its own of that country lead itself and its people and he titled "Conqueror Napoleon". This concept of invading was to make sure the countries and its people of each nation had its own culture, language. As withthat also the French and its ways kept in Europe as European of new making by Napoleon of France.
This is very appealing to Ireland and the Irish at this time period for theirs to be first in Ireland as Irish they be and not under the Crown of England. Any fighting or Allie in preference with France from Ireland is by, law captured to be trialed and if, found guilty "Hanged for Treason".
Wolfe Tone's capture by The Crown of England, is aided in his release from the connections of "The United Irishmen in Politics" is released as he "Voluntary Exile Himself". So, to avoid any then present conflict with the Crown of England, Wolfe Tone with his wife Matilda and then 3 Children and his sister set sail for America. In Belfast, on June 13th 1795, the Wolfe Tones set sail on "The Cincinnatus" and land in Port Wilmington, Delaware on August 1st, 1795.
Wolfe Tone wrote of living in America in his journals. He does remark on how America is wanting "Independence from the Crown of England". Theobald Wolfe Tone connections in America of Politics is "Ambassador Monroe" to "Adjutant Minister of Forgien Affairs" and "Jackson"at the time. See: Monroe and Jackson, "President's in History" on listings of: "American Presidents". Wolfe Tone, writes of what is politics and how the political party "The Whig's" are in America. He also writes of them been very strong with good strength.
Wolfe Tone purchases a farm of 180 acres outside of Princeton, New Jersey for 1,180.00 Dollars. His stays five months to settle his wife Matilda and Children in with plans to return home alone.
1796, Jan 1st, 1796, he sets sail from New York to return back to Europe. He arrives in Le Harve, France, on Feb 1st 1796.
1796, Napper Tandy (Secretary) arrives in America, via Hamburg, Germany in 1796.
1796, July 20th, Wolfe Tone is commissioned into "The French Army". He enters in rank as: "Chief de Brigade".
1796 - 1797, Getting to Bantry Bay, Cork, Ireland with France.
On December 2nd 1796, 43 French ships set sail with approximately 14,000 soldiers, for "Bantry Bay". Two of the ships "Seduisant" and "Fraternite" befall. "Seduisant" hit a rock where, 1,300 are killed on board. The "Fraternite" goes missing and unaccounted for. On board the "Fraternite" is General Hoche and Admiral de Galles. A ship called "Indomptable" carried Wolfe Tone whom kept a diary on the seas. He spoke of how Admiral de Galles, ordered the ship to turn into the storm to avoid the English Crown at sea which lead to the ships disappearance and becoming losted.
On December 21st 1796, news reaches to Cork town that, the French have were off the coast of "Bantry Bay". On December 25th 1796, the "Cork Catholic Bishop", issues a statement to dioceses not to give aid to the French. The ships never got to dock and go ashore yet, many of those that, did make it to "Bantry Bay" did disembark. Not all were troops as the ships were carrying civilians also. The Irish in decision sided with the English on opposing the French. As a result, the ships to "Bantry Bay" is the pages of history of: The Irish of those that enlisted with Napoleon and France. It proved how the French Ships could remain off the coast of Bantry Bay for approximately one week without the English Crown of Britannia getting close to them. Yet, Bantry Bay was a failed attempt yet, one of the first from France in Ireland.
1797, Jan 21st, Wolfe Tones returns to Paris, France.
1797, May 7th, Wolfe Tone is reunited with his wife "Matilda".
1797, September 29th, "Hoche" of the missing ship "Fraternite", dies at the age of: 29 years old.
1797, October, "Napoleon", is now "Commander to lead in Battle against England".
1797, December, Wolfe Tone and Lewins meet Napoleon.
1798, March 25th, Wolfe Tone is promoted to: "Adjutant-General.
1798, May 19th, Lord Edward Fitzgerald is captured.
1798, June 4th, Lord Edward Fitzgerald dies at the age of 35 years of age from wounds occurred when captured in May.
1798, August 22nd, at Killala, County Mayo, General Humbert's small force lands and is defeated by the English which outnumbers and defeats them.
1798, Matthew Tone is captured under General Humabert's command and is court-martialled and hanged.
1798, October 12th, General Hardy's reaches Donegal coast,and is confronted by the English naval and after just a couple of hours defeated by the English.
1798, November 3rd, Wolfe Tone is captured and brought ashore wearing a French soldier's uniform of France.
Theobald Wolfe Tone is now known as: "Adjutant-General Wolfe Tone of The French Army". This is well-known and to capture Wolfe Tone is what England's Crown's deal him his punishment. Theobald Wolfe Tone in now a French Citizen and a Adjutant-General of The French Army captured by The English. He is first brought to Derry's prison to where he put in his rights as a prisoner of war, so as requesting to be sent to Dublin. On November 10th, Wolfe Tone was tried by military court at Collins Barracks and found guilty of "Treason".
Wolfe Tone finds out he will not be shot but hung at Newgate Prison at 1pm the following day Monday, November 11th, 1798. Wolfe Tone wanted to be shot as a soldier fighting against the English Crown instead he is sent to death for "Treason by Hanging". That night he cut his throat with a penknife. His cutting of his throat did not kill Wolfe Tone right off he lived for another week. He died on November 19th 1798.
After an inquest on Wolfe Tone;s death his body was then released to his friends with the term of condition that it would be a private burial and not public. His body was brought to "52 High Street" where mourners stopped in the number to pay their respects. There is a plaster mask of Wolfe Tone in the Kilmainham Goal Museum Prison on Inchicore Road, Dublin 8, that was made of Theobald Wolfe Tone face. He was buried in the family plot at Bodenstown.
Matilda Tone, exiled with family was left a widow in Paris, France at the age of 28 years of age. Wolfe Tone's Father was too distressed to attend his Son's Funeral. Matilda was given a small grant to live on till, in 1804, when Napoleon set her a goodly pension that increased in the years to follow. Of the three surviving children left behind for Matilda to raise:
1803, Maria, died of Tuberculosis.
1806, Francis, died of Tuberculosis.
William Wolfe Tone did contract Tuberculosis and survived it. He attended French military school till 1815. The Wolf Tone's then decided to live elsewhere than France. They applied through Dublin Castle to return to Dublin but were denied application. In 1816, Matilda Tone married Thomas Wilson in Paris, France. They then went to live in America after first living a year in Scotland. William studied in Law and held a position in the "American War Office". William settled in America, married "Catherine Sampson" the daughter of a Dublin man. They had a daughter together.
1828, William Tone dies of Tuberculosis at 38 years of age.
1849, Matilda Tone-Wilson dies at the age of 80. The Americans and French showed to pay much respects to the widow of Theobald Wolfe Tone.
What started out with a young man interested in the Military in Ireland and Politics in Ireland, is what began the first real beginning of what we know in Ireland's title "Republic of Ireland - Europe". For all the rest did not forget and carried on the struggle for freedom of the British Crown. With France Independent and America breaking too from The Old Britannia of British Crown, Ireland still had a way to go for Independence from the British Crown. What was the beginning was the start for both, North and South wanting freedom from the Crown and paying high taxes to England and Its, Crown and Parliament in Ireland.
"The United Irishmen's Pledge"
I, ---------------------,in the presence of God, do pledge myself to my country that I will use all my abilities and influence in the attainment of an adequate and impartial representation of the Irish nation in Parliament, and as a means of absolute and immediate necessity in the attainment of this chief good of Ireland, I will endeavour as much as lies in my ability, to forward a brotherhood of affection, an identity of interests, a communion of rights and a union of power among Irishmen of all religious persuasions, without which every reform must be partial, not national, inadequate to the wants, delusive to the wishes and insufficient for the freedom and happiness of this country.
This pledge and its first members: Wolfe Tone and Thomas Russell was set forward October 1791 that opened up the meetings that continued and for the next "Robert Emmet".