Origins of the New Big 5
Dispositional traits are generally believed to be inborn, however most personality theorists fall into at least one of the four 'Positions' of the origin of traits. The positions are: Nero Physiological Substrates, Behavioral Dispositions, Act Frequencies, and Linguistic Categories. Each of which suggests either an explanation for the existence of personality traits or a way of identifying traits.
Nero Physiological substrate
Personality theorists aligned under this prospective generally believe that traits are biologically based and determined by the anatomy and physiology of the brain.
Theorists who endorse this position tend to focus on engaging the whole person on a human level. This is often because traits are integrated with many other factors that make up the whole person.
Theorists who are classed under the Act Frequencies position generalize about traits through behavior patterns.
Linguistic categories is more of a philosophical position, which suggests that traits exist only in our perceptions. In other words, traits are imagined and subjective.
Gordon Willard Allport
Gordon Willard Allport is considered the father of personality psychology. Preceding Allport behavioral research assumed a nomathetic approach; meaning that assessment of the personality relied primarily on quantification, scales, and measurement. Conversely, Allport assumed an ideographic prospective, where the personality is qualitatively engaged on a more human level.
Eysenck contributed to psychology, his theory of super traits: extraversion, psychoticism, neuroticism. Eysenck theorized that these traits are expressed through habitual actions, and through trial and error these expressions are modified to better suit specific situations.
Mccre and Costa's theory of personality
The Five Factor Model, constructed by Costa & McCrae in 1992, is a list of five polar personality traits which can be used to make generalizations about an individual. According to theory, everyone falls somewhere along a scale for each of the five trait factors.
Each of the Five domains of personality include a list of facets associated with each trait.
Facets: Friendliness, Gregariousness, Assertiveness, Activity level, Excitement-seeking, Cheerfulness
Facets: trustworthiness, altruism, coöperation, modesty, sympathy
Facets: Self-Efficacy, orderliness, Dutifulness, Achievement-Striving, Self-Discipline, Cautiousness
Facets: Anxiety, Anger, Depression, Self-Consciousness, Immoderation, Vulnerability
Openness to Experience
The New Big 5