Implementation is as simple as the presentation and as difficult as the need to pre-determine the effectiveness of the presentation before subjecting trainees to it. Not only do you have to develop content that is credible and acceptable to the training audience, but it must accomplish the training goals. This phase of ADDIE contains all of the determining factors that control the success of your training effort. This part of the training plan must be well thought out and represent a comprehensive description of how training will be presented.

A. Instructional Components

The training design solution identifies and describes each of the instructional components. If all instructions for working through a Web-based instruction module are on-line, the content and

presentation will most likely be very different than if they were developed for four-color process printing.

1. Instructor Guide

Traditionally, the legacy Instructor Guide includes presentation instructions and notes along with an explanation of when to show multi-media components, instructions for conducting exercises, and how and when to administer quiz and test questions. If training content is presented using MS PowerPoint or one of a number of similar presentation programs, the notes for each slide will contain the Instruction Guide. With the advent of self-study, multi-media on Web-based programs, the information that would have been included in the Instructor Guide is provided as on-line notes integrated into the student training program.

2. Student's Guide

Student Guides typically are printed for distribution to students to follow the instructor for making notes and following an outline of the program. Like the Instructor Guide, the Student Guide typically

provides instructions for participating in exercises and quizzes. All instructions guiding the sequence and progression through the training are now included with the sections containing program components.

3. Slide Deck

The media for conveying the message may vary considerably depending on the development tool and what the final product includes. When preparing briefing slides, the slide deck should use an organization-wide template. Training materials mayor may not use the command slide template. Some course authoring programs such as Articulate Pro Suite are MS PowerPoint plug-ins and feature their own interaction templates for developing slides, exercises, thesaurus, quizzes and tests.

4. Video

Video is, and will remain a viable learning tool. Live-action video (including video capture of screen sequences) enables the student to see object relationships clearly which gives training multi-dimension quality. This increases the credibility of the information and usability of it. Whole training programs are presented as Flash-enabled video or as MP3's inserted in the Flash program for Web-based interaction. The Articulate program mentioned earlier generates a Flash file with interactive components, including links to the Internet, embedded exercises, tests and Thesaurus.

B. On-line Access

On-line access enables users of eLearning programs to use searches from the programs to find solutions to the problems they are presented in the eLearning program. The value of on-line access is very high given specific links and/or tag clouds generated as part of an ontology of words and concepts. The whole on-line concept extends the depth of learning as long as it remains focused on solutions and objectives, not on freelance searches into cyberspace.

C. Thesaurus

Words enable learning when they are used in the intended context. The Articulate thesaurus template enables interactivity and allows focused Internet searches.

D. Exercises and Learning Games

Paper-based exercises often leave a lot to the imagination and need to be implemented by an instructor who has familiarity with the exercise outcomes. With software-based course authoring programs such as Articulate, interactive learning games/exercises require the user to solve a word puzzle in as little time as possible to earn points. The exercise starts with a verbal question that requires the player to supply letters to reveal the correct word.

E. Tests and Quizzes

In addition to producing the training materials and accompanying handouts, exercises and job aids, performance-oriented, competency-based tests should be developed that will be administered before and after training. The pre-training and post-training tests should identify the participant's pre- and post-course level of knowledge of core (essential) cognitive and psychomotor skills included in the training module. Although both types of tests should cover the same content, they should be written differently to avoid getting a repetition of the same answers on both tests due to memory of the test rather than memory and application of the content. The obvious value of comparing the results of the two tests is to measure the increase in participant knowledge and skill. If tests reveal that training had no effect, the training materials and implementation must be reviewed for consistency with course objectives, compatibility with official content, currency, and adequate and effective implementation.