The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission or EEOC is the agency tasked to enforce various federal employment discrimination laws in the United States.

The EEOC tries to eliminate all types of discrimination that may exist in the workplace by providing an avenue where employees can file a complaint or report.

The most common types of Discrimination are based on the following:

· Sex
Under Title VII of the Civil rights Act of 1964, it is illegal to discriminate or treat someone unfavorably based on the employee's sex.
Sexual harassment in the workplace is also considered a form of sex discrimination whether it is based on unwanted sexual favors or exposure of employees to conducts that are sexual in nature.
There is also an amendment in the Title VII that prohibits discrimination against women because of childbirth, pregnancy or any related medical condition.
Under the amendment, pregnancy or childbirth related disabilities should be treated in the same manner that other temporary disabilities are handled.
Lastly, the Equal Pay Act also makes it illegal to pay different wages to male and female workers who perform substantially equal amounts of work.

· Religion, National Origin, Color, Race
This is also covered under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act.
It prohibits discrimination based on the religion, national origin, color and race of the applicant or employee.
It also prohibits discrimination against employees because of their connection with groups associated with certain religion, national origin, color or race.
Employers are also required to provide reasonable accommodations to employees who wish to practice sincerely held religious beliefs as long as it does not cause undue hardships

· Age
Under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, it is illegal to discriminate against employees or applicants who are over the age of 40.
The law, however, does not provide protection to employees who are below the age of 40, although employees can check their own state's law if it provides some form of coverage.
· Disability and Medical Condition
Under the American with Disabilities Act, an employer may not discriminate against a qualified applicant or employee because of disability.
The law also prohibits discrimination based on the employee or applicant's history of illnesses, mental or physical disability that is expected to last less than six months, or minor long term or permanent disability.
Employers are also required to provide reasonable accommodation to disabled applicants and employees to help them adjust in the workplace.
The exemption would be if the accommodation would provide the employer undue hardship.
Lastly, Under the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA), employers may not discriminate against an applicant or employee based on results of genetic tests on any or their family members, or from any information about diseases or illnesses of any family member.

Consult an employment law attorney to know more information about these discrimination laws.