Travel refers to the movement of things or people connecting relatively far geographical places. There are many motives for traveling which include relaxing, discovering, exploring, learning about other cultures and improving upon strengthening interpersonal relations. There are different kinds of travel such as local, national, regional or international. A round trip is a specific kind of travel which involves an individual moving from his place of residence to one or many places and then returns to his home.
People have many aims for traveling which include tourism, leisure or spending a vacation, research travel for collecting information, visiting people in other places on holidays, volunteer to travel for raising charity, migration to other countries, religious pilgrimages and trips undertaken for a purpose, commuting for work, to get good healthcare or just for the joy of traveling. Traveling may be done by walking, bicycling, using vehicles such as automobiles, trains, public transport and airplanes.
People these days travel to distant countries and places in order to see works of art, sightseeing, experiencing new cultures and learning new languages and tasting exotic and different cuisines from all over the world. The different kinds of travel are mentioned below such as:
Leisure travel was earlier linked with the Industrial Revolution in the UK which was the first country in Europe to encourage our spare time to the growing industrial population. To begin with, it was applicable to the owners of the production of machines, the owners of factories, tradesmen and the economic oligarchy. These consisted of the new middle class travelers. In 1758, the first official travel company which was formed was Cox & Kings.
Many places had been named because of this new industry’s British origin. Nice, which is a holiday resort on the French Riviera, is known even today as the Promenade des Anglais. In continental Europe, many old and popular palace hotels which replicate the power of English customers are named after them such as Hotel Carlton, or Hotel Majestic or Hotel Bristol and so on.
Several tourists who wish to travel for leisure travel to tropical places during the winter and summer. Some places often visited by these tourists include Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Brazil, Malaysia, Mexico, several Polynesian tropical islands, Bali in Indonesia, Queensland in Australia, Thailand, Saint-Tropez and Cannes in France, Hawaii, Florida and Puerto Rico in the US, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, St.Lucia Saint Maarten, St. Martin's Island in Bangladesh, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, The Bahamas, Anguilla, Turks and Caicos Islands, and Bermuda.
Even though it is known that the Swiss were not the original ski inventors, it is a known fact that Graubünden and St. Moritz became the start of the emerging winter tourism since 1865, when many hotels were risking opening their hotels in winter. It was much later in 1970 that winter tourism made a great leap forward in several Swiss ski resorts. Even during the winter, one third of all the tourists comprise non-skiers, but it depends largely on the location.
The most important ski resorts are found mainly in several European countries, Canada, the US, New Zealand, South Korea, Chile, Japan and also Argentina.
Mass tourism has now improved only because of technological advancement, which permits the movement of people in huge numbers in a brief time to places of relaxation to enable them to enjoy the benefits of vacation time.
The first seaside resorts made in European style in the US were found in New Jersey, Atlantic City and in Long Island in New York.
In Continental Europe some earlier resorts include the Boulogne-sur-Mer (Pas-de-Calais) and Deauville (Calvados) for the Parisians, the Heiligendamm as the first seaside resort on the Baltic Sea and the Ostend in Brussels.
Adjectival tourism means the special types of tourism which have evolved slowly over the years and several of them have been made use of the tourism industry and also the educationists. Some others may or may not become popular depending on its usage. Some examples of the general niche tourism industry include Pop-culture tourism, Culinary tourism, Cultural tourism, Extreme tourism, Geo tourism, Heritage tourism, Agritourism, Birth tourism, LGBT tourism, Medical and Nautical tourism, Religious tourism, Sex tourism, Slum tourism, War and Wildlife tourism.
Latest developments in Tourism
In the last few decades, the tourism industry is growing rapidly and tourists have a variety of budgets and choices and various kinds of resorts and hotels have opened their doors to gratify their needs. For instance, some people prefer to spend their vacations on beaches alone whereas others want their holidays to be made special, holidays spent with their families or niche destination hotels and resorts. Given below are some new trends which have evolved in tourism.
Sustainable tourism is visualized as the management of all resources and means in such a manner that social, economic and aesthetic wants are satisfied along with preserving cultural integrity, vital ecological processes, biological diversity and life-support schemes. Therefore, this type of tourism is seen as considering ecological and socio-cultural abilities and includes the involvement of the public in planning tourism growth. It also means combining tourism to fit with the present economic and developmental policies in order to alleviate some of the harmful economic and social influences of ‘mass tourism’.
Murphy (1985) advocates the use of an 'ecological approach', to consider both 'plants' and 'people' when implementing the sustainable tourism development process. This is in contrast to the 'boosterism' and 'economic' approaches to tourism planning, neither of which considers the detrimental ecological or sociological impacts of tourism development to a destination.
Ecotourism, which is also called as ecological tourism is dependable travel to frail, clean and well-preserved regions that are attempting to have a small impact and range. This type of tourism aids in educating the traveler and offers charity for conserving and has a direct advantage for the economic development and political agreement of the local societies and promotes respect for various cultures and human rights too.
Medical tourism refers to a situation when there is a considerable price change between countries for some medical process, especially in countries like India, East Europe and S.E. Asia, and where the rules are different in relation to some special medical processes like dentistry, then it is advantageous to travel because of the above mentioned differences.
Educational tourism grew due to the upward trend of teaching and gaining knowledge and increasing technical capability outside the classroom. In this kind of tourism, the main aim of the tour involves a visit to other countries to gain knowledge about their culture by undertaking Study Tours and Student Exchange Programs or maybe to get a job and then apply those skills acquired in a classroom to practical use like the International Practicum Training Program.
Creative tourism has been in existence as cultural tourism since a long time. In recent years, this kind of tourism has been named by Greg Richards and Crispin Raymond, who were members of the Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS) and have directed many projects for the European Commission, which also include the crafts and cultural tourism, called as sustainable tourism. They have defined this kind of tourism as that which is linked to the active involvement of travelers in the host societies’ culture done via interactive workshops and unofficial learning experiences.
In the meantime, high-profile organizations have picked up the idea of creative tourism like the UNESCO have certified creative tourism as a busy and real experience which supports an active understanding of the particular cultural characteristics of a place.
Currently, creative tourism has become popular as a kind of cultural tourism, depending on active involvement of travelers about the culture of the host societies that they go to see. Many countries provide this kind of tourism development and this includes the Bahamas, Jamaica, the United Kingdom, Italy, Spain and also New-Zealand.
This kind of tourism has gained popularity since the late eighties. Sports events like the Olympics, Asian and Commonwealth games, Rugby and the World Cup football games allow special travel companies to benefit from the official ticket distribution and sell these later in packages like flight packages, hotel packages and also tour packages.
The aim on sports and sports-related activities has increased sports tourism. International events such as Olympics have made the audience realize the range of different sports that are present in the world. In the US, only football was popular and in some Asian countries, many football events made football even more famous. But only the Olympics have increased the interest in sport tourism. This increase in general sports made the travel companies aware and they started selling package flights. Initially, these packages sold like hot cakes but because of the recession, the sale decreased and this fluctuation in the number of packages sold depended entirely on the financial situation. Hence, travel companies began to put away any further plans to make or market any new package deals.