A look at the background
The name United Nations was kept by former U.S President Franklin D. Roosevelt and first time it was used on 1st january 1942. Similarly after the horrid and disastrous World War II ruling leaders of fifty one countries met at San Francisco to laid down the foundation of this international organization.
This global institution came into existence after a long-term effort of several great leaders of the world who worked day and night to bring the world on table, namely, Sir Winston Churchill, Franklin D.Roosevelt, and Russian leader Marshal. For making UN they worked for more than five years and finally after relentlessly and tirelessly work they got their reward and perhaps they themselves would be proud of their work. Due to their prolific work the world still remember them as a great politicians.
Remember at the beginning of this journey there were only few nations who were agreed regarding making of UN which was U.S.A, Russia, England, and China and presently these five nations are major members of UN. In this regard, for more negotiation and formulation a conference was held at Dumbarton Oaks (a place in washington) on 21st August 1944 in which they outlined initial proposal of UN. Thus the proposal was ratified by them with many other nations and it was the day when UN came into being.
Objectives and Principles
The UN Charter has the following objectives and principles:
- To establish international peace and security.
- To build companionable relationship among nations.
- All UN members are equal and autonomous.
- They refrain the harness of power and threatening other nations.
- They will sincerely pursuant to charter and will meet its obligations.
- They shall mend their international disputes by peaceful means.
- They would donate funds to UN.
- UN shall not interfair in internal affairs of any state.
Includingly UN official languages are Chinese, Hispanic, English, French, and Russian though English and French are working language. The functional language of General Assembly, Economic and Social Council is Hispanic.
United Nations membership is open to all peace-loving states who can accept the charter of UN. Until now 191 indepenent states are member of UN.
Among all other United Nations institutions general assembly is the largest one. The objective of this institution is to discuss on issues of their members. It is his right to make recommendations regarding all matters within the boundaries of UN charter, therefore he has no right to put pressure on any of his member to take any particular action. However, being manifestation of world opinion its recommendations has a great moral weight. Whenever new problems arise assembly does take steps to deal with them.
General Assembly can make recommendations on these matters:
- Promote International Cooperation.
- Configuration of International Law.
- To enhance International Cooperation in human rights, fundamental freedom, economic, social, cultural, educational and health sectors.
In 1950 General Assembly passed a resolution in which was told that if the permanent members of Security Council can be failed to fulfill their responsibility and as a result if the international peace could be at risk then General Assembly has the right to exercise the Security Council powers regarding peace problems.
United Nations Agencies
International Labour Organization (ILO) : Its formation came into effect on 11 April 1919. It was the first distinctive agency which affiliated with UN in 1946. Its purpose is to promote social justice and establish peace, improving working conditions and quality of life and to promote economic and social stability.
The UN's Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
It was established on November 4, 1946. Its primary goal is to broaden the boundaries of education and science in every part of the world. Greater than that furthering peace and justice in the world, rule of law, human rights and respect for fundamental rights.
World Health Organization (WHO)
It was formed on April 17, 1945 and just like many other UN agencies it also have specific purposes, namely, Improvement of human environment, family health, mental health, training of health workers, and to research on pharmaceutical.
Only five permanent members of Security Council have the power of veto, namely, United Kingdom, United States of America, Russian Federation, France and China. If any of these members had used the veto then for sure that problem will remain unsolve. A examples regarding how one can use the veto power:
- Recently a year back regarding Syria's Civil War U.S felt to begin airstrike on Syria for numerous reasons, but she failed to do so as Russia veto that act in Security Council.