Different ways of making fabrics

How yarns are weaved into fabrics

Weaving is an interlacing of yarns or other fibers at right angles. Fabrics are woven on looms. The principle in all looms is the same. A frame holds a set of lengthwise yarns. These form tge warp. A shuttle laces a weft yarn through the warp yarns, back and forth, to fill out the fabric. (Weft yarns are also known as woof yarns or filing yarns.)

Harnesses with attachments to individual warp yarns raise and lower different sets of these for each passage of the filing yarn. The grouping of warp yarns as the harnesses raise and lower them determines the pattern of weaving. There are three basic weaves - plain, twill, and satin.

In a plain weave the filling yarn passes under one warp yarn and over the next. Every other row is alike. Any lines that are visible run straight across or straight up and down the cloth. Percale, tafetta, and organdy are examples of the plain weave. They differ from one another because the yarns in them are different. Basket weave is a variation of the plain weave in which two or more filing yarns pass together over and under similar groups of warp yarns. Rib weaves are also variations of the plain weave.

In the twill weave the filing yarn passes over and under groups pf warp yarns in such a way as to make diagonal lines across the surface of the fabric. This weave appears in cheviot, herringbone, covert cloth. serge, gabardine, denim, drill, and in some tweeds and flannels. It makes strong, firm cloth.

In the satin weave the filling yarn passes under the warp yarns at widely separated intervals. In a variation called the sateen weave, the filing yarns passes over the warp yarns at similar intervals. In the first case warp yarns "float." In both cases the surface is lustrous (if a smooth yarn is used) because the floating yarn, lying nearly continuously on the surface of the fabric, catches and reflects light.

Other Ways of Making Fabrics

Although cloth is usually thought of as neither woven or knit, there are other ways of making fabrics. Felting is a matting together of fibers by means of moisture, heat, and pressure. 

Braiding  is an interlacing of three or more strands of yarn or other fiber so that each strand passes over and under one or more of the other strands. Braid may be flat or round. Manufacturers use all the textile fibers, as well as metal, tinsel, straw, wire, and leather. in braids. They use the braids to make hats of straw or other fiber, small rugs, dress accessories, and many other articles.

Netting is an entertwining of yarns at each point where they cross so they form a mesh type of fabric. Netted fabrics vary from a coarse, open, fish-net type to fine handmade or machine-made lace.

The chemist and engineer have used their modern magic to produce fabriclike plastics. These can hardly be cloth. They are not made by any of the clothmaking processes. Yet they serve many of the uses of cloth. Like all plastics, they are molded. They are waterproof and dustproof. Some are chemical resistant. They appear as "yard goods" and in draperies, shower curtains, upholstery, raincoats, dust covers for dishes and kitchen appliances, and clothesbags. They have many trade names, including Pliofilm, Krene, Elasti-glass, and Vinylite.