Leaves in a circular formation from the base of a plant are termed "rosettes". This form of plant growth is highly decorative in the garden. Many rosette forming plants send up flowering spikes from the center, some with very showy flowers. Here is some information on rosette forming plants.
There are many small succulent plants that have adapted to storing water in the leaves so when they form these decorative clumps, they look almost sculptural. Some of the better know succulents that grow in a rosette form are Sedums, Graptopetalum (Ghost Plant) and Sempervivium (House Leek).
Some other plants that grow from basal rosettes are the Mulleins (Verbascum), Foxglove (Digitalis), ferns, palms and thistles.
More spiky rosette forming plants are Yuccas, Cordylines, Aloes, Agaves and Dasilyrions.
Rosette forming plants with incredibly ornate flowers are found in the bromeliad family. Some of these are exceptionally showy plants that grow well in mild climates or indoors as house plants.
Technically there is a question as to whether a plant can truly be considered a rosette if it grows a stem or trunk, but for my purposes here, the look is equally useful. That means you can even throw in cabbages, celery and lettuce into the salad of rosette forming plants!
Use these circular clump forming plants to create textures and variety in the garden. Grow the larger varieties where the large vertical effects they produce when blooming will create the best effects. Smaller smaller rosette forming plants make great textural effects throughout the flower border and in the front.