The Dead Sea
The Lowest Place on Earth from Sea Level
The Dead Sea, 400 meters below sea level, is the lowest place on Earth. It is situated in the Middle East, encircled by Jordan and Israel. It is more of a lagoon than a sea, in which the water is supplied by the Jordan River. The fresh water present in it evaporates, however, leaving behind a salt concentration, which is seven times higher than that of the ocean. Except minute microbes, no life can live on in this sea.
With its large mineral and salt content, the Dead Sea is also recognized as a place of curing. The minerals of the Dead Sea have long been thought to have curing properties. They are frequently used in soaps and cosmetics, and several fancy health resorts have bounced up along the seashore to accommodate the tourists. Besides, it is visited by millions each year looking for bath healing and entertainment. According to Islamic custom, however, it is also famous as a symbol of God's sentence.
Tristan de Cunha
The Most Remote Inhabited place in the World
Tristan de Cunha Island, situated in the southern Atlantic Ocean, is the most remote inhabitant place on earth. Home to 272 population sharing only 8 family names, inhabitants living in this island suffer from inherited illness like asthma and glaucoma.
Tristan da Cunha was long ago on the core trading route between the Indian Ocean and Europe, but the small society currently existing there is exceedingly isolated. It is located 2,800 km west of the city ‘Cape Town’, in South Africa, and is a component of a cluster of islands, which consists of Nightingale, Inaccessible, Middle, Gough, and Stoltenhoff.
Tristan da Cunha was discovered in 1506, though it left deserted until it was used by US fishermen, in the late 1700s. The British navy positioned a barrack there during Napoleon's deport on St Helena, and when the barrack was withdrawn, three men resided behind and became the originators of the current settlement.
The Coldest Inhabited place in the World
Oymyakon is the coldest inhabited place in the world. The temperature in this place reaches -71 degree Celsius in winter. Life at such a low temperature generates an entire host of problems we never even imagine about. Even birds in Oymyakon at times freeze to death in midflight.
Daily troubles that arrive with living in Oymyakon include ink freezing, glass freezing to folk’s faces, and power lose in batteries. Inhabitants leave their cars running all day for fright of not being able to start them again. Even mobile phones don’t work in such cold conditions. Schools in this village only shut down if the temperature falls below -62 Celsius.
Another trouble that occurs due to frozen conditions is burying dead bodies, which can take up to three days. The land must be melted adequately in order to excavate it, so a beacon is lit for several hours. Hot coals are then pressed to the side and a hole of few inches deep is dug. The procedure is repeated for a number of days until the space is deep enough to bury the coffin.
The Hottest Place in the World
The Lut Desert is situated in the eastern area of Iran. The temperature recorded on its surface is as high as 71 °C, which is the highest surface temperature recorded on Earth.
It is believed that no mortal can stay alive for long in this desert; moreover, it is generally considered an abiotic region, being so sinister that not even bacteria can survive. Few researchers took fresh milk into the Lut desert, stored it exposed in temperatures in excess of 71 °C in the shade, and yet the milk remained germ-free.
The Lut Desert includes a number of large basins separated by damaged mountains and crests, enveloping an area of around 200 by 100 miles. 
The Dry Valleys
The Driest Place on Earth
The Dry Valleys in Antarctica is considered driest place on earth. These valleys have not seen rainwater for around two million years. Except one valley, whose lakes are temporarily filled with water by inland rivers during the summer, the Dry Valleys have no moisture (water, ice, or snow). The reason behind the existence of these valleys is the 200 mph Katabatic down winds that evaporate the entire moisture.
The 15,000 km2 Area of the Dry Valleys includes freezing desert soils millions of year old, unusual geological properties, and exceptional communities of plants and bacteria. It is a region where life survives at the very harsh of environmental limits. 
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